20861988b24c906b1ba04c5788b6dc9014a553ca
[stockfish] / src / book.cpp
1 /*
2   Stockfish, a UCI chess playing engine derived from Glaurung 2.1
3   Copyright (C) 2004-2008 Tord Romstad (Glaurung author)
4   Copyright (C) 2008-2010 Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, Tord Romstad
5
6   Stockfish is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
7   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
8   the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
9   (at your option) any later version.
10
11   Stockfish is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
12   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
13   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
14   GNU General Public License for more details.
15
16   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
17   along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
18 */
19
20
21 /*
22   The code in this file is based on the opening book code in PolyGlot
23   by Fabien Letouzey.  PolyGlot is available under the GNU General
24   Public License, and can be downloaded from http://wbec-ridderkerk.nl
25 */
26
27
28 ////
29 //// Includes
30 ////
31
32 #include <cassert>
33
34 #include "book.h"
35 #include "mersenne.h"
36 #include "movegen.h"
37
38 using namespace std;
39
40 ////
41 //// Global variables
42 ////
43
44 Book OpeningBook;
45
46
47 ////
48 //// Local definitions
49 ////
50
51 namespace {
52
53   /// Book entry size in bytes
54   const int EntrySize = 16;
55
56
57   /// Random numbers from PolyGlot, used to compute book hash keys
58
59   const uint64_t Random64[781] = {
60     0x9D39247E33776D41ULL, 0x2AF7398005AAA5C7ULL, 0x44DB015024623547ULL,
61     0x9C15F73E62A76AE2ULL, 0x75834465489C0C89ULL, 0x3290AC3A203001BFULL,
62     0x0FBBAD1F61042279ULL, 0xE83A908FF2FB60CAULL, 0x0D7E765D58755C10ULL,
63     0x1A083822CEAFE02DULL, 0x9605D5F0E25EC3B0ULL, 0xD021FF5CD13A2ED5ULL,
64     0x40BDF15D4A672E32ULL, 0x011355146FD56395ULL, 0x5DB4832046F3D9E5ULL,
65     0x239F8B2D7FF719CCULL, 0x05D1A1AE85B49AA1ULL, 0x679F848F6E8FC971ULL,
66     0x7449BBFF801FED0BULL, 0x7D11CDB1C3B7ADF0ULL, 0x82C7709E781EB7CCULL,
67     0xF3218F1C9510786CULL, 0x331478F3AF51BBE6ULL, 0x4BB38DE5E7219443ULL,
68     0xAA649C6EBCFD50FCULL, 0x8DBD98A352AFD40BULL, 0x87D2074B81D79217ULL,
69     0x19F3C751D3E92AE1ULL, 0xB4AB30F062B19ABFULL, 0x7B0500AC42047AC4ULL,
70     0xC9452CA81A09D85DULL, 0x24AA6C514DA27500ULL, 0x4C9F34427501B447ULL,
71     0x14A68FD73C910841ULL, 0xA71B9B83461CBD93ULL, 0x03488B95B0F1850FULL,
72     0x637B2B34FF93C040ULL, 0x09D1BC9A3DD90A94ULL, 0x3575668334A1DD3BULL,
73     0x735E2B97A4C45A23ULL, 0x18727070F1BD400BULL, 0x1FCBACD259BF02E7ULL,
74     0xD310A7C2CE9B6555ULL, 0xBF983FE0FE5D8244ULL, 0x9F74D14F7454A824ULL,
75     0x51EBDC4AB9BA3035ULL, 0x5C82C505DB9AB0FAULL, 0xFCF7FE8A3430B241ULL,
76     0x3253A729B9BA3DDEULL, 0x8C74C368081B3075ULL, 0xB9BC6C87167C33E7ULL,
77     0x7EF48F2B83024E20ULL, 0x11D505D4C351BD7FULL, 0x6568FCA92C76A243ULL,
78     0x4DE0B0F40F32A7B8ULL, 0x96D693460CC37E5DULL, 0x42E240CB63689F2FULL,
79     0x6D2BDCDAE2919661ULL, 0x42880B0236E4D951ULL, 0x5F0F4A5898171BB6ULL,
80     0x39F890F579F92F88ULL, 0x93C5B5F47356388BULL, 0x63DC359D8D231B78ULL,
81     0xEC16CA8AEA98AD76ULL, 0x5355F900C2A82DC7ULL, 0x07FB9F855A997142ULL,
82     0x5093417AA8A7ED5EULL, 0x7BCBC38DA25A7F3CULL, 0x19FC8A768CF4B6D4ULL,
83     0x637A7780DECFC0D9ULL, 0x8249A47AEE0E41F7ULL, 0x79AD695501E7D1E8ULL,
84     0x14ACBAF4777D5776ULL, 0xF145B6BECCDEA195ULL, 0xDABF2AC8201752FCULL,
85     0x24C3C94DF9C8D3F6ULL, 0xBB6E2924F03912EAULL, 0x0CE26C0B95C980D9ULL,
86     0xA49CD132BFBF7CC4ULL, 0xE99D662AF4243939ULL, 0x27E6AD7891165C3FULL,
87     0x8535F040B9744FF1ULL, 0x54B3F4FA5F40D873ULL, 0x72B12C32127FED2BULL,
88     0xEE954D3C7B411F47ULL, 0x9A85AC909A24EAA1ULL, 0x70AC4CD9F04F21F5ULL,
89     0xF9B89D3E99A075C2ULL, 0x87B3E2B2B5C907B1ULL, 0xA366E5B8C54F48B8ULL,
90     0xAE4A9346CC3F7CF2ULL, 0x1920C04D47267BBDULL, 0x87BF02C6B49E2AE9ULL,
91     0x092237AC237F3859ULL, 0xFF07F64EF8ED14D0ULL, 0x8DE8DCA9F03CC54EULL,
92     0x9C1633264DB49C89ULL, 0xB3F22C3D0B0B38EDULL, 0x390E5FB44D01144BULL,
93     0x5BFEA5B4712768E9ULL, 0x1E1032911FA78984ULL, 0x9A74ACB964E78CB3ULL,
94     0x4F80F7A035DAFB04ULL, 0x6304D09A0B3738C4ULL, 0x2171E64683023A08ULL,
95     0x5B9B63EB9CEFF80CULL, 0x506AACF489889342ULL, 0x1881AFC9A3A701D6ULL,
96     0x6503080440750644ULL, 0xDFD395339CDBF4A7ULL, 0xEF927DBCF00C20F2ULL,
97     0x7B32F7D1E03680ECULL, 0xB9FD7620E7316243ULL, 0x05A7E8A57DB91B77ULL,
98     0xB5889C6E15630A75ULL, 0x4A750A09CE9573F7ULL, 0xCF464CEC899A2F8AULL,
99     0xF538639CE705B824ULL, 0x3C79A0FF5580EF7FULL, 0xEDE6C87F8477609DULL,
100     0x799E81F05BC93F31ULL, 0x86536B8CF3428A8CULL, 0x97D7374C60087B73ULL,
101     0xA246637CFF328532ULL, 0x043FCAE60CC0EBA0ULL, 0x920E449535DD359EULL,
102     0x70EB093B15B290CCULL, 0x73A1921916591CBDULL, 0x56436C9FE1A1AA8DULL,
103     0xEFAC4B70633B8F81ULL, 0xBB215798D45DF7AFULL, 0x45F20042F24F1768ULL,
104     0x930F80F4E8EB7462ULL, 0xFF6712FFCFD75EA1ULL, 0xAE623FD67468AA70ULL,
105     0xDD2C5BC84BC8D8FCULL, 0x7EED120D54CF2DD9ULL, 0x22FE545401165F1CULL,
106     0xC91800E98FB99929ULL, 0x808BD68E6AC10365ULL, 0xDEC468145B7605F6ULL,
107     0x1BEDE3A3AEF53302ULL, 0x43539603D6C55602ULL, 0xAA969B5C691CCB7AULL,
108     0xA87832D392EFEE56ULL, 0x65942C7B3C7E11AEULL, 0xDED2D633CAD004F6ULL,
109     0x21F08570F420E565ULL, 0xB415938D7DA94E3CULL, 0x91B859E59ECB6350ULL,
110     0x10CFF333E0ED804AULL, 0x28AED140BE0BB7DDULL, 0xC5CC1D89724FA456ULL,
111     0x5648F680F11A2741ULL, 0x2D255069F0B7DAB3ULL, 0x9BC5A38EF729ABD4ULL,
112     0xEF2F054308F6A2BCULL, 0xAF2042F5CC5C2858ULL, 0x480412BAB7F5BE2AULL,
113     0xAEF3AF4A563DFE43ULL, 0x19AFE59AE451497FULL, 0x52593803DFF1E840ULL,
114     0xF4F076E65F2CE6F0ULL, 0x11379625747D5AF3ULL, 0xBCE5D2248682C115ULL,
115     0x9DA4243DE836994FULL, 0x066F70B33FE09017ULL, 0x4DC4DE189B671A1CULL,
116     0x51039AB7712457C3ULL, 0xC07A3F80C31FB4B4ULL, 0xB46EE9C5E64A6E7CULL,
117     0xB3819A42ABE61C87ULL, 0x21A007933A522A20ULL, 0x2DF16F761598AA4FULL,
118     0x763C4A1371B368FDULL, 0xF793C46702E086A0ULL, 0xD7288E012AEB8D31ULL,
119     0xDE336A2A4BC1C44BULL, 0x0BF692B38D079F23ULL, 0x2C604A7A177326B3ULL,
120     0x4850E73E03EB6064ULL, 0xCFC447F1E53C8E1BULL, 0xB05CA3F564268D99ULL,
121     0x9AE182C8BC9474E8ULL, 0xA4FC4BD4FC5558CAULL, 0xE755178D58FC4E76ULL,
122     0x69B97DB1A4C03DFEULL, 0xF9B5B7C4ACC67C96ULL, 0xFC6A82D64B8655FBULL,
123     0x9C684CB6C4D24417ULL, 0x8EC97D2917456ED0ULL, 0x6703DF9D2924E97EULL,
124     0xC547F57E42A7444EULL, 0x78E37644E7CAD29EULL, 0xFE9A44E9362F05FAULL,
125     0x08BD35CC38336615ULL, 0x9315E5EB3A129ACEULL, 0x94061B871E04DF75ULL,
126     0xDF1D9F9D784BA010ULL, 0x3BBA57B68871B59DULL, 0xD2B7ADEEDED1F73FULL,
127     0xF7A255D83BC373F8ULL, 0xD7F4F2448C0CEB81ULL, 0xD95BE88CD210FFA7ULL,
128     0x336F52F8FF4728E7ULL, 0xA74049DAC312AC71ULL, 0xA2F61BB6E437FDB5ULL,
129     0x4F2A5CB07F6A35B3ULL, 0x87D380BDA5BF7859ULL, 0x16B9F7E06C453A21ULL,
130     0x7BA2484C8A0FD54EULL, 0xF3A678CAD9A2E38CULL, 0x39B0BF7DDE437BA2ULL,
131     0xFCAF55C1BF8A4424ULL, 0x18FCF680573FA594ULL, 0x4C0563B89F495AC3ULL,
132     0x40E087931A00930DULL, 0x8CFFA9412EB642C1ULL, 0x68CA39053261169FULL,
133     0x7A1EE967D27579E2ULL, 0x9D1D60E5076F5B6FULL, 0x3810E399B6F65BA2ULL,
134     0x32095B6D4AB5F9B1ULL, 0x35CAB62109DD038AULL, 0xA90B24499FCFAFB1ULL,
135     0x77A225A07CC2C6BDULL, 0x513E5E634C70E331ULL, 0x4361C0CA3F692F12ULL,
136     0xD941ACA44B20A45BULL, 0x528F7C8602C5807BULL, 0x52AB92BEB9613989ULL,
137     0x9D1DFA2EFC557F73ULL, 0x722FF175F572C348ULL, 0x1D1260A51107FE97ULL,
138     0x7A249A57EC0C9BA2ULL, 0x04208FE9E8F7F2D6ULL, 0x5A110C6058B920A0ULL,
139     0x0CD9A497658A5698ULL, 0x56FD23C8F9715A4CULL, 0x284C847B9D887AAEULL,
140     0x04FEABFBBDB619CBULL, 0x742E1E651C60BA83ULL, 0x9A9632E65904AD3CULL,
141     0x881B82A13B51B9E2ULL, 0x506E6744CD974924ULL, 0xB0183DB56FFC6A79ULL,
142     0x0ED9B915C66ED37EULL, 0x5E11E86D5873D484ULL, 0xF678647E3519AC6EULL,
143     0x1B85D488D0F20CC5ULL, 0xDAB9FE6525D89021ULL, 0x0D151D86ADB73615ULL,
144     0xA865A54EDCC0F019ULL, 0x93C42566AEF98FFBULL, 0x99E7AFEABE000731ULL,
145     0x48CBFF086DDF285AULL, 0x7F9B6AF1EBF78BAFULL, 0x58627E1A149BBA21ULL,
146     0x2CD16E2ABD791E33ULL, 0xD363EFF5F0977996ULL, 0x0CE2A38C344A6EEDULL,
147     0x1A804AADB9CFA741ULL, 0x907F30421D78C5DEULL, 0x501F65EDB3034D07ULL,
148     0x37624AE5A48FA6E9ULL, 0x957BAF61700CFF4EULL, 0x3A6C27934E31188AULL,
149     0xD49503536ABCA345ULL, 0x088E049589C432E0ULL, 0xF943AEE7FEBF21B8ULL,
150     0x6C3B8E3E336139D3ULL, 0x364F6FFA464EE52EULL, 0xD60F6DCEDC314222ULL,
151     0x56963B0DCA418FC0ULL, 0x16F50EDF91E513AFULL, 0xEF1955914B609F93ULL,
152     0x565601C0364E3228ULL, 0xECB53939887E8175ULL, 0xBAC7A9A18531294BULL,
153     0xB344C470397BBA52ULL, 0x65D34954DAF3CEBDULL, 0xB4B81B3FA97511E2ULL,
154     0xB422061193D6F6A7ULL, 0x071582401C38434DULL, 0x7A13F18BBEDC4FF5ULL,
155     0xBC4097B116C524D2ULL, 0x59B97885E2F2EA28ULL, 0x99170A5DC3115544ULL,
156     0x6F423357E7C6A9F9ULL, 0x325928EE6E6F8794ULL, 0xD0E4366228B03343ULL,
157     0x565C31F7DE89EA27ULL, 0x30F5611484119414ULL, 0xD873DB391292ED4FULL,
158     0x7BD94E1D8E17DEBCULL, 0xC7D9F16864A76E94ULL, 0x947AE053EE56E63CULL,
159     0xC8C93882F9475F5FULL, 0x3A9BF55BA91F81CAULL, 0xD9A11FBB3D9808E4ULL,
160     0x0FD22063EDC29FCAULL, 0xB3F256D8ACA0B0B9ULL, 0xB03031A8B4516E84ULL,
161     0x35DD37D5871448AFULL, 0xE9F6082B05542E4EULL, 0xEBFAFA33D7254B59ULL,
162     0x9255ABB50D532280ULL, 0xB9AB4CE57F2D34F3ULL, 0x693501D628297551ULL,
163     0xC62C58F97DD949BFULL, 0xCD454F8F19C5126AULL, 0xBBE83F4ECC2BDECBULL,
164     0xDC842B7E2819E230ULL, 0xBA89142E007503B8ULL, 0xA3BC941D0A5061CBULL,
165     0xE9F6760E32CD8021ULL, 0x09C7E552BC76492FULL, 0x852F54934DA55CC9ULL,
166     0x8107FCCF064FCF56ULL, 0x098954D51FFF6580ULL, 0x23B70EDB1955C4BFULL,
167     0xC330DE426430F69DULL, 0x4715ED43E8A45C0AULL, 0xA8D7E4DAB780A08DULL,
168     0x0572B974F03CE0BBULL, 0xB57D2E985E1419C7ULL, 0xE8D9ECBE2CF3D73FULL,
169     0x2FE4B17170E59750ULL, 0x11317BA87905E790ULL, 0x7FBF21EC8A1F45ECULL,
170     0x1725CABFCB045B00ULL, 0x964E915CD5E2B207ULL, 0x3E2B8BCBF016D66DULL,
171     0xBE7444E39328A0ACULL, 0xF85B2B4FBCDE44B7ULL, 0x49353FEA39BA63B1ULL,
172     0x1DD01AAFCD53486AULL, 0x1FCA8A92FD719F85ULL, 0xFC7C95D827357AFAULL,
173     0x18A6A990C8B35EBDULL, 0xCCCB7005C6B9C28DULL, 0x3BDBB92C43B17F26ULL,
174     0xAA70B5B4F89695A2ULL, 0xE94C39A54A98307FULL, 0xB7A0B174CFF6F36EULL,
175     0xD4DBA84729AF48ADULL, 0x2E18BC1AD9704A68ULL, 0x2DE0966DAF2F8B1CULL,
176     0xB9C11D5B1E43A07EULL, 0x64972D68DEE33360ULL, 0x94628D38D0C20584ULL,
177     0xDBC0D2B6AB90A559ULL, 0xD2733C4335C6A72FULL, 0x7E75D99D94A70F4DULL,
178     0x6CED1983376FA72BULL, 0x97FCAACBF030BC24ULL, 0x7B77497B32503B12ULL,
179     0x8547EDDFB81CCB94ULL, 0x79999CDFF70902CBULL, 0xCFFE1939438E9B24ULL,
180     0x829626E3892D95D7ULL, 0x92FAE24291F2B3F1ULL, 0x63E22C147B9C3403ULL,
181     0xC678B6D860284A1CULL, 0x5873888850659AE7ULL, 0x0981DCD296A8736DULL,
182     0x9F65789A6509A440ULL, 0x9FF38FED72E9052FULL, 0xE479EE5B9930578CULL,
183     0xE7F28ECD2D49EECDULL, 0x56C074A581EA17FEULL, 0x5544F7D774B14AEFULL,
184     0x7B3F0195FC6F290FULL, 0x12153635B2C0CF57ULL, 0x7F5126DBBA5E0CA7ULL,
185     0x7A76956C3EAFB413ULL, 0x3D5774A11D31AB39ULL, 0x8A1B083821F40CB4ULL,
186     0x7B4A38E32537DF62ULL, 0x950113646D1D6E03ULL, 0x4DA8979A0041E8A9ULL,
187     0x3BC36E078F7515D7ULL, 0x5D0A12F27AD310D1ULL, 0x7F9D1A2E1EBE1327ULL,
188     0xDA3A361B1C5157B1ULL, 0xDCDD7D20903D0C25ULL, 0x36833336D068F707ULL,
189     0xCE68341F79893389ULL, 0xAB9090168DD05F34ULL, 0x43954B3252DC25E5ULL,
190     0xB438C2B67F98E5E9ULL, 0x10DCD78E3851A492ULL, 0xDBC27AB5447822BFULL,
191     0x9B3CDB65F82CA382ULL, 0xB67B7896167B4C84ULL, 0xBFCED1B0048EAC50ULL,
192     0xA9119B60369FFEBDULL, 0x1FFF7AC80904BF45ULL, 0xAC12FB171817EEE7ULL,
193     0xAF08DA9177DDA93DULL, 0x1B0CAB936E65C744ULL, 0xB559EB1D04E5E932ULL,
194     0xC37B45B3F8D6F2BAULL, 0xC3A9DC228CAAC9E9ULL, 0xF3B8B6675A6507FFULL,
195     0x9FC477DE4ED681DAULL, 0x67378D8ECCEF96CBULL, 0x6DD856D94D259236ULL,
196     0xA319CE15B0B4DB31ULL, 0x073973751F12DD5EULL, 0x8A8E849EB32781A5ULL,
197     0xE1925C71285279F5ULL, 0x74C04BF1790C0EFEULL, 0x4DDA48153C94938AULL,
198     0x9D266D6A1CC0542CULL, 0x7440FB816508C4FEULL, 0x13328503DF48229FULL,
199     0xD6BF7BAEE43CAC40ULL, 0x4838D65F6EF6748FULL, 0x1E152328F3318DEAULL,
200     0x8F8419A348F296BFULL, 0x72C8834A5957B511ULL, 0xD7A023A73260B45CULL,
201     0x94EBC8ABCFB56DAEULL, 0x9FC10D0F989993E0ULL, 0xDE68A2355B93CAE6ULL,
202     0xA44CFE79AE538BBEULL, 0x9D1D84FCCE371425ULL, 0x51D2B1AB2DDFB636ULL,
203     0x2FD7E4B9E72CD38CULL, 0x65CA5B96B7552210ULL, 0xDD69A0D8AB3B546DULL,
204     0x604D51B25FBF70E2ULL, 0x73AA8A564FB7AC9EULL, 0x1A8C1E992B941148ULL,
205     0xAAC40A2703D9BEA0ULL, 0x764DBEAE7FA4F3A6ULL, 0x1E99B96E70A9BE8BULL,
206     0x2C5E9DEB57EF4743ULL, 0x3A938FEE32D29981ULL, 0x26E6DB8FFDF5ADFEULL,
207     0x469356C504EC9F9DULL, 0xC8763C5B08D1908CULL, 0x3F6C6AF859D80055ULL,
208     0x7F7CC39420A3A545ULL, 0x9BFB227EBDF4C5CEULL, 0x89039D79D6FC5C5CULL,
209     0x8FE88B57305E2AB6ULL, 0xA09E8C8C35AB96DEULL, 0xFA7E393983325753ULL,
210     0xD6B6D0ECC617C699ULL, 0xDFEA21EA9E7557E3ULL, 0xB67C1FA481680AF8ULL,
211     0xCA1E3785A9E724E5ULL, 0x1CFC8BED0D681639ULL, 0xD18D8549D140CAEAULL,
212     0x4ED0FE7E9DC91335ULL, 0xE4DBF0634473F5D2ULL, 0x1761F93A44D5AEFEULL,
213     0x53898E4C3910DA55ULL, 0x734DE8181F6EC39AULL, 0x2680B122BAA28D97ULL,
214     0x298AF231C85BAFABULL, 0x7983EED3740847D5ULL, 0x66C1A2A1A60CD889ULL,
215     0x9E17E49642A3E4C1ULL, 0xEDB454E7BADC0805ULL, 0x50B704CAB602C329ULL,
216     0x4CC317FB9CDDD023ULL, 0x66B4835D9EAFEA22ULL, 0x219B97E26FFC81BDULL,
217     0x261E4E4C0A333A9DULL, 0x1FE2CCA76517DB90ULL, 0xD7504DFA8816EDBBULL,
218     0xB9571FA04DC089C8ULL, 0x1DDC0325259B27DEULL, 0xCF3F4688801EB9AAULL,
219     0xF4F5D05C10CAB243ULL, 0x38B6525C21A42B0EULL, 0x36F60E2BA4FA6800ULL,
220     0xEB3593803173E0CEULL, 0x9C4CD6257C5A3603ULL, 0xAF0C317D32ADAA8AULL,
221     0x258E5A80C7204C4BULL, 0x8B889D624D44885DULL, 0xF4D14597E660F855ULL,
222     0xD4347F66EC8941C3ULL, 0xE699ED85B0DFB40DULL, 0x2472F6207C2D0484ULL,
223     0xC2A1E7B5B459AEB5ULL, 0xAB4F6451CC1D45ECULL, 0x63767572AE3D6174ULL,
224     0xA59E0BD101731A28ULL, 0x116D0016CB948F09ULL, 0x2CF9C8CA052F6E9FULL,
225     0x0B090A7560A968E3ULL, 0xABEEDDB2DDE06FF1ULL, 0x58EFC10B06A2068DULL,
226     0xC6E57A78FBD986E0ULL, 0x2EAB8CA63CE802D7ULL, 0x14A195640116F336ULL,
227     0x7C0828DD624EC390ULL, 0xD74BBE77E6116AC7ULL, 0x804456AF10F5FB53ULL,
228     0xEBE9EA2ADF4321C7ULL, 0x03219A39EE587A30ULL, 0x49787FEF17AF9924ULL,
229     0xA1E9300CD8520548ULL, 0x5B45E522E4B1B4EFULL, 0xB49C3B3995091A36ULL,
230     0xD4490AD526F14431ULL, 0x12A8F216AF9418C2ULL, 0x001F837CC7350524ULL,
231     0x1877B51E57A764D5ULL, 0xA2853B80F17F58EEULL, 0x993E1DE72D36D310ULL,
232     0xB3598080CE64A656ULL, 0x252F59CF0D9F04BBULL, 0xD23C8E176D113600ULL,
233     0x1BDA0492E7E4586EULL, 0x21E0BD5026C619BFULL, 0x3B097ADAF088F94EULL,
234     0x8D14DEDB30BE846EULL, 0xF95CFFA23AF5F6F4ULL, 0x3871700761B3F743ULL,
235     0xCA672B91E9E4FA16ULL, 0x64C8E531BFF53B55ULL, 0x241260ED4AD1E87DULL,
236     0x106C09B972D2E822ULL, 0x7FBA195410E5CA30ULL, 0x7884D9BC6CB569D8ULL,
237     0x0647DFEDCD894A29ULL, 0x63573FF03E224774ULL, 0x4FC8E9560F91B123ULL,
238     0x1DB956E450275779ULL, 0xB8D91274B9E9D4FBULL, 0xA2EBEE47E2FBFCE1ULL,
239     0xD9F1F30CCD97FB09ULL, 0xEFED53D75FD64E6BULL, 0x2E6D02C36017F67FULL,
240     0xA9AA4D20DB084E9BULL, 0xB64BE8D8B25396C1ULL, 0x70CB6AF7C2D5BCF0ULL,
241     0x98F076A4F7A2322EULL, 0xBF84470805E69B5FULL, 0x94C3251F06F90CF3ULL,
242     0x3E003E616A6591E9ULL, 0xB925A6CD0421AFF3ULL, 0x61BDD1307C66E300ULL,
243     0xBF8D5108E27E0D48ULL, 0x240AB57A8B888B20ULL, 0xFC87614BAF287E07ULL,
244     0xEF02CDD06FFDB432ULL, 0xA1082C0466DF6C0AULL, 0x8215E577001332C8ULL,
245     0xD39BB9C3A48DB6CFULL, 0x2738259634305C14ULL, 0x61CF4F94C97DF93DULL,
246     0x1B6BACA2AE4E125BULL, 0x758F450C88572E0BULL, 0x959F587D507A8359ULL,
247     0xB063E962E045F54DULL, 0x60E8ED72C0DFF5D1ULL, 0x7B64978555326F9FULL,
248     0xFD080D236DA814BAULL, 0x8C90FD9B083F4558ULL, 0x106F72FE81E2C590ULL,
249     0x7976033A39F7D952ULL, 0xA4EC0132764CA04BULL, 0x733EA705FAE4FA77ULL,
250     0xB4D8F77BC3E56167ULL, 0x9E21F4F903B33FD9ULL, 0x9D765E419FB69F6DULL,
251     0xD30C088BA61EA5EFULL, 0x5D94337FBFAF7F5BULL, 0x1A4E4822EB4D7A59ULL,
252     0x6FFE73E81B637FB3ULL, 0xDDF957BC36D8B9CAULL, 0x64D0E29EEA8838B3ULL,
253     0x08DD9BDFD96B9F63ULL, 0x087E79E5A57D1D13ULL, 0xE328E230E3E2B3FBULL,
254     0x1C2559E30F0946BEULL, 0x720BF5F26F4D2EAAULL, 0xB0774D261CC609DBULL,
255     0x443F64EC5A371195ULL, 0x4112CF68649A260EULL, 0xD813F2FAB7F5C5CAULL,
256     0x660D3257380841EEULL, 0x59AC2C7873F910A3ULL, 0xE846963877671A17ULL,
257     0x93B633ABFA3469F8ULL, 0xC0C0F5A60EF4CDCFULL, 0xCAF21ECD4377B28CULL,
258     0x57277707199B8175ULL, 0x506C11B9D90E8B1DULL, 0xD83CC2687A19255FULL,
259     0x4A29C6465A314CD1ULL, 0xED2DF21216235097ULL, 0xB5635C95FF7296E2ULL,
260     0x22AF003AB672E811ULL, 0x52E762596BF68235ULL, 0x9AEBA33AC6ECC6B0ULL,
261     0x944F6DE09134DFB6ULL, 0x6C47BEC883A7DE39ULL, 0x6AD047C430A12104ULL,
262     0xA5B1CFDBA0AB4067ULL, 0x7C45D833AFF07862ULL, 0x5092EF950A16DA0BULL,
263     0x9338E69C052B8E7BULL, 0x455A4B4CFE30E3F5ULL, 0x6B02E63195AD0CF8ULL,
264     0x6B17B224BAD6BF27ULL, 0xD1E0CCD25BB9C169ULL, 0xDE0C89A556B9AE70ULL,
265     0x50065E535A213CF6ULL, 0x9C1169FA2777B874ULL, 0x78EDEFD694AF1EEDULL,
266     0x6DC93D9526A50E68ULL, 0xEE97F453F06791EDULL, 0x32AB0EDB696703D3ULL,
267     0x3A6853C7E70757A7ULL, 0x31865CED6120F37DULL, 0x67FEF95D92607890ULL,
268     0x1F2B1D1F15F6DC9CULL, 0xB69E38A8965C6B65ULL, 0xAA9119FF184CCCF4ULL,
269     0xF43C732873F24C13ULL, 0xFB4A3D794A9A80D2ULL, 0x3550C2321FD6109CULL,
270     0x371F77E76BB8417EULL, 0x6BFA9AAE5EC05779ULL, 0xCD04F3FF001A4778ULL,
271     0xE3273522064480CAULL, 0x9F91508BFFCFC14AULL, 0x049A7F41061A9E60ULL,
272     0xFCB6BE43A9F2FE9BULL, 0x08DE8A1C7797DA9BULL, 0x8F9887E6078735A1ULL,
273     0xB5B4071DBFC73A66ULL, 0x230E343DFBA08D33ULL, 0x43ED7F5A0FAE657DULL,
274     0x3A88A0FBBCB05C63ULL, 0x21874B8B4D2DBC4FULL, 0x1BDEA12E35F6A8C9ULL,
275     0x53C065C6C8E63528ULL, 0xE34A1D250E7A8D6BULL, 0xD6B04D3B7651DD7EULL,
276     0x5E90277E7CB39E2DULL, 0x2C046F22062DC67DULL, 0xB10BB459132D0A26ULL,
277     0x3FA9DDFB67E2F199ULL, 0x0E09B88E1914F7AFULL, 0x10E8B35AF3EEAB37ULL,
278     0x9EEDECA8E272B933ULL, 0xD4C718BC4AE8AE5FULL, 0x81536D601170FC20ULL,
279     0x91B534F885818A06ULL, 0xEC8177F83F900978ULL, 0x190E714FADA5156EULL,
280     0xB592BF39B0364963ULL, 0x89C350C893AE7DC1ULL, 0xAC042E70F8B383F2ULL,
281     0xB49B52E587A1EE60ULL, 0xFB152FE3FF26DA89ULL, 0x3E666E6F69AE2C15ULL,
282     0x3B544EBE544C19F9ULL, 0xE805A1E290CF2456ULL, 0x24B33C9D7ED25117ULL,
283     0xE74733427B72F0C1ULL, 0x0A804D18B7097475ULL, 0x57E3306D881EDB4FULL,
284     0x4AE7D6A36EB5DBCBULL, 0x2D8D5432157064C8ULL, 0xD1E649DE1E7F268BULL,
285     0x8A328A1CEDFE552CULL, 0x07A3AEC79624C7DAULL, 0x84547DDC3E203C94ULL,
286     0x990A98FD5071D263ULL, 0x1A4FF12616EEFC89ULL, 0xF6F7FD1431714200ULL,
287     0x30C05B1BA332F41CULL, 0x8D2636B81555A786ULL, 0x46C9FEB55D120902ULL,
288     0xCCEC0A73B49C9921ULL, 0x4E9D2827355FC492ULL, 0x19EBB029435DCB0FULL,
289     0x4659D2B743848A2CULL, 0x963EF2C96B33BE31ULL, 0x74F85198B05A2E7DULL,
290     0x5A0F544DD2B1FB18ULL, 0x03727073C2E134B1ULL, 0xC7F6AA2DE59AEA61ULL,
291     0x352787BAA0D7C22FULL, 0x9853EAB63B5E0B35ULL, 0xABBDCDD7ED5C0860ULL,
292     0xCF05DAF5AC8D77B0ULL, 0x49CAD48CEBF4A71EULL, 0x7A4C10EC2158C4A6ULL,
293     0xD9E92AA246BF719EULL, 0x13AE978D09FE5557ULL, 0x730499AF921549FFULL,
294     0x4E4B705B92903BA4ULL, 0xFF577222C14F0A3AULL, 0x55B6344CF97AAFAEULL,
295     0xB862225B055B6960ULL, 0xCAC09AFBDDD2CDB4ULL, 0xDAF8E9829FE96B5FULL,
296     0xB5FDFC5D3132C498ULL, 0x310CB380DB6F7503ULL, 0xE87FBB46217A360EULL,
297     0x2102AE466EBB1148ULL, 0xF8549E1A3AA5E00DULL, 0x07A69AFDCC42261AULL,
298     0xC4C118BFE78FEAAEULL, 0xF9F4892ED96BD438ULL, 0x1AF3DBE25D8F45DAULL,
299     0xF5B4B0B0D2DEEEB4ULL, 0x962ACEEFA82E1C84ULL, 0x046E3ECAAF453CE9ULL,
300     0xF05D129681949A4CULL, 0x964781CE734B3C84ULL, 0x9C2ED44081CE5FBDULL,
301     0x522E23F3925E319EULL, 0x177E00F9FC32F791ULL, 0x2BC60A63A6F3B3F2ULL,
302     0x222BBFAE61725606ULL, 0x486289DDCC3D6780ULL, 0x7DC7785B8EFDFC80ULL,
303     0x8AF38731C02BA980ULL, 0x1FAB64EA29A2DDF7ULL, 0xE4D9429322CD065AULL,
304     0x9DA058C67844F20CULL, 0x24C0E332B70019B0ULL, 0x233003B5A6CFE6ADULL,
305     0xD586BD01C5C217F6ULL, 0x5E5637885F29BC2BULL, 0x7EBA726D8C94094BULL,
306     0x0A56A5F0BFE39272ULL, 0xD79476A84EE20D06ULL, 0x9E4C1269BAA4BF37ULL,
307     0x17EFEE45B0DEE640ULL, 0x1D95B0A5FCF90BC6ULL, 0x93CBE0B699C2585DULL,
308     0x65FA4F227A2B6D79ULL, 0xD5F9E858292504D5ULL, 0xC2B5A03F71471A6FULL,
309     0x59300222B4561E00ULL, 0xCE2F8642CA0712DCULL, 0x7CA9723FBB2E8988ULL,
310     0x2785338347F2BA08ULL, 0xC61BB3A141E50E8CULL, 0x150F361DAB9DEC26ULL,
311     0x9F6A419D382595F4ULL, 0x64A53DC924FE7AC9ULL, 0x142DE49FFF7A7C3DULL,
312     0x0C335248857FA9E7ULL, 0x0A9C32D5EAE45305ULL, 0xE6C42178C4BBB92EULL,
313     0x71F1CE2490D20B07ULL, 0xF1BCC3D275AFE51AULL, 0xE728E8C83C334074ULL,
314     0x96FBF83A12884624ULL, 0x81A1549FD6573DA5ULL, 0x5FA7867CAF35E149ULL,
315     0x56986E2EF3ED091BULL, 0x917F1DD5F8886C61ULL, 0xD20D8C88C8FFE65FULL,
316     0x31D71DCE64B2C310ULL, 0xF165B587DF898190ULL, 0xA57E6339DD2CF3A0ULL,
317     0x1EF6E6DBB1961EC9ULL, 0x70CC73D90BC26E24ULL, 0xE21A6B35DF0C3AD7ULL,
318     0x003A93D8B2806962ULL, 0x1C99DED33CB890A1ULL, 0xCF3145DE0ADD4289ULL,
319     0xD0E4427A5514FB72ULL, 0x77C621CC9FB3A483ULL, 0x67A34DAC4356550BULL,
320     0xF8D626AAAF278509ULL
321   };
322
323
324   /// Indices to the Random64[] array
325
326   const int RandomPiece     = 0;
327   const int RandomCastle    = 768;
328   const int RandomEnPassant = 772;
329   const int RandomTurn      = 780;
330
331
332   /// Prototypes
333
334   uint64_t book_key(const Position& pos);
335   uint64_t book_piece_key(Piece p, Square s);
336   uint64_t book_castle_key(const Position& pos);
337   uint64_t book_ep_key(const Position& pos);
338   uint64_t book_color_key(const Position& pos);
339 }
340
341
342 ////
343 //// Functions
344 ////
345
346
347 /// Destructor. Be sure file is closed before we leave.
348
349 Book::~Book() {
350
351   close();
352 }
353
354
355 /// Book::open() opens a book file with a given file name
356
357 void Book::open(const string& fName) {
358
359   // Close old file before opening the new
360   close();
361
362   fileName = fName;
363   ifstream::open(fileName.c_str(), ifstream::in | ifstream::binary);
364   if (!is_open())
365       return;
366
367   // Get the book size in number of entries
368   seekg(0, ios::end);
369   bookSize = tellg() / EntrySize;
370   seekg(0, ios::beg);
371
372   if (!good())
373   {
374       cerr << "Failed to open book file " << fileName << endl;
375       Application::exit_with_failure();
376   }
377 }
378
379
380 /// Book::close() closes the file only if it is open, otherwise
381 /// we can end up in a little mess due to how std::ifstream works.
382
383 void Book::close() {
384
385   if (is_open())
386       ifstream::close();
387 }
388
389
390 /// Book::file_name() returns the file name of the currently active book,
391 /// or the empty string if no book is open.
392
393 const string Book::file_name() { // Not const to compile on HP-UX 11.X
394
395   return is_open() ? fileName : "";
396 }
397
398
399 /// Book::get_move() gets a book move for a given position. Returns
400 /// MOVE_NONE if no book move is found.
401
402 Move Book::get_move(const Position& pos) {
403
404   if (!is_open() || bookSize == 0)
405       return MOVE_NONE;
406
407   int bookMove = 0, scoresSum = 0;
408   uint64_t key = book_key(pos);
409   BookEntry entry;
410
411   // Choose a book move among the possible moves for the given position
412   for (int idx = find_key(key); idx < bookSize; idx++)
413   {
414       read_entry(entry, idx);
415       if (entry.key != key)
416           break;
417
418       int score = entry.count;
419
420       assert(score > 0);
421
422       // Choose book move according to its score. If a move has a very
423       // high score it has more probability to be choosen then a one with
424       // lower score. Note that first entry is always chosen.
425       scoresSum += score;
426       if (int(genrand_int32() % scoresSum) < score)
427           bookMove = entry.move;
428   }
429   if (!bookMove)
430       return MOVE_NONE;
431
432   MoveStack mlist[256];
433   MoveStack* last = generate_moves(pos, mlist);
434   for (MoveStack* cur = mlist; cur != last; cur++)
435       if ((int(cur->move) & 07777) == bookMove)
436           return cur->move;
437
438   return MOVE_NONE;
439 }
440
441
442 /// Book::find_key() takes a book key as input, and does a binary search
443 /// through the book file for the given key. The index to the first book
444 /// entry with the same key as the input is returned. When the key is not
445 /// found in the book file, bookSize is returned.
446
447 int Book::find_key(uint64_t key) {
448
449   int left, right, mid;
450   BookEntry entry;
451
452   // Binary search (finds the leftmost entry)
453   left = 0;
454   right = bookSize - 1;
455
456   assert(left <= right);
457
458   while (left < right)
459   {
460       mid = (left + right) / 2;
461
462       assert(mid >= left && mid < right);
463
464       read_entry(entry, mid);
465       if (key <= entry.key)
466           right = mid;
467       else
468           left = mid + 1;
469   }
470
471   assert(left == right);
472
473   read_entry(entry, left);
474   return (entry.key == key)? left : bookSize;
475 }
476
477
478 /// Book::read_entry() takes a BookEntry reference and an integer index as
479 /// input, and looks up the opening book entry at the given index in the book
480 /// file. The book entry is copied to the first input parameter.
481
482 void Book::read_entry(BookEntry& entry, int idx) {
483
484   assert(idx >= 0 && idx < bookSize);
485   assert(is_open());
486
487   seekg(idx * EntrySize, ios_base::beg);
488   *this >> entry;
489   if (!good())
490   {
491       cerr << "Failed to read book entry at index " << idx << endl;
492       Application::exit_with_failure();
493   }
494 }
495
496
497 /// Book::read_integer() reads size chars from the file stream
498 /// and converts them in an integer number.
499
500 uint64_t Book::read_integer(int size) {
501
502   char buf[8];
503   read(buf, size);
504
505   // Numbers are stored on disk as a binary byte stream
506   uint64_t n = 0ULL;
507   for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
508       n = (n << 8) + (unsigned char)buf[i];
509
510   return n;
511 }
512
513
514 ////
515 //// Local definitions
516 ////
517
518 namespace {
519
520   uint64_t book_key(const Position& pos) {
521
522     uint64_t result = 0ULL;
523
524     for (Color c = WHITE; c <= BLACK; c++)
525     {
526         Bitboard b = pos.pieces_of_color(c);
527
528         while (b)
529         {
530             Square s = pop_1st_bit(&b);
531             Piece p = pos.piece_on(s);
532
533             assert(piece_is_ok(p));
534             assert(color_of_piece(p) == c);
535
536             result ^= book_piece_key(p, s);
537         }
538     }
539     result ^= book_castle_key(pos);
540     result ^= book_ep_key(pos);
541     result ^= book_color_key(pos);
542     return result;
543   }
544
545
546   uint64_t book_piece_key(Piece p, Square s) {
547
548     /// Convert pieces to the range 0..11
549     static const int PieceTo12[] = { 0, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 0, 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 };
550
551     return Random64[RandomPiece + (PieceTo12[int(p)]^1) * 64 + int(s)];
552   }
553
554
555   uint64_t book_castle_key(const Position& pos) {
556
557     uint64_t result = 0ULL;
558
559     if (pos.can_castle_kingside(WHITE))
560         result ^= Random64[RandomCastle+0];
561
562     if (pos.can_castle_queenside(WHITE))
563         result ^= Random64[RandomCastle+1];
564
565     if (pos.can_castle_kingside(BLACK))
566         result ^= Random64[RandomCastle+2];
567
568     if (pos.can_castle_queenside(BLACK))
569         result ^= Random64[RandomCastle+3];
570
571     return result;
572   }
573
574
575   uint64_t book_ep_key(const Position& pos) {
576     return (pos.ep_square() == SQ_NONE ? 0ULL : Random64[RandomEnPassant + square_file(pos.ep_square())]);
577   }
578
579
580   uint64_t book_color_key(const Position& pos) {
581     return (pos.side_to_move() == WHITE ? Random64[RandomTurn] : 0ULL);
582   }
583 }