Rename class Book to PolyglotBook
[stockfish] / src / book.cpp
1 /*
2   Stockfish, a UCI chess playing engine derived from Glaurung 2.1
3   Copyright (C) 2004-2008 Tord Romstad (Glaurung author)
4   Copyright (C) 2008-2012 Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, Tord Romstad
5
6   Stockfish is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
7   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
8   the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
9   (at your option) any later version.
10
11   Stockfish is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
12   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
13   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
14   GNU General Public License for more details.
15
16   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
17   along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
18 */
19
20 /*
21   The code in this file is based on the opening book code in PolyGlot
22   by Fabien Letouzey. PolyGlot is available under the GNU General
23   Public License, and can be downloaded from http://wbec-ridderkerk.nl
24 */
25
26 #include <algorithm>
27 #include <cassert>
28 #include <iostream>
29
30 #include "book.h"
31 #include "misc.h"
32 #include "movegen.h"
33
34 using namespace std;
35
36 namespace {
37
38   // A Polyglot book is a series of "entries" of 16 bytes. All integers are
39   // stored in big-endian format, with highest byte first (regardless of size).
40   // The entries are ordered according to the key in ascending order.
41   struct BookEntry {
42     uint64_t key;
43     uint16_t move;
44     uint16_t count;
45     uint32_t learn;
46   };
47
48   // Random numbers from PolyGlot, used to compute book hash keys
49   const Key PolyGlotRandoms[781] = {
50     0x9D39247E33776D41ULL, 0x2AF7398005AAA5C7ULL, 0x44DB015024623547ULL,
51     0x9C15F73E62A76AE2ULL, 0x75834465489C0C89ULL, 0x3290AC3A203001BFULL,
52     0x0FBBAD1F61042279ULL, 0xE83A908FF2FB60CAULL, 0x0D7E765D58755C10ULL,
53     0x1A083822CEAFE02DULL, 0x9605D5F0E25EC3B0ULL, 0xD021FF5CD13A2ED5ULL,
54     0x40BDF15D4A672E32ULL, 0x011355146FD56395ULL, 0x5DB4832046F3D9E5ULL,
55     0x239F8B2D7FF719CCULL, 0x05D1A1AE85B49AA1ULL, 0x679F848F6E8FC971ULL,
56     0x7449BBFF801FED0BULL, 0x7D11CDB1C3B7ADF0ULL, 0x82C7709E781EB7CCULL,
57     0xF3218F1C9510786CULL, 0x331478F3AF51BBE6ULL, 0x4BB38DE5E7219443ULL,
58     0xAA649C6EBCFD50FCULL, 0x8DBD98A352AFD40BULL, 0x87D2074B81D79217ULL,
59     0x19F3C751D3E92AE1ULL, 0xB4AB30F062B19ABFULL, 0x7B0500AC42047AC4ULL,
60     0xC9452CA81A09D85DULL, 0x24AA6C514DA27500ULL, 0x4C9F34427501B447ULL,
61     0x14A68FD73C910841ULL, 0xA71B9B83461CBD93ULL, 0x03488B95B0F1850FULL,
62     0x637B2B34FF93C040ULL, 0x09D1BC9A3DD90A94ULL, 0x3575668334A1DD3BULL,
63     0x735E2B97A4C45A23ULL, 0x18727070F1BD400BULL, 0x1FCBACD259BF02E7ULL,
64     0xD310A7C2CE9B6555ULL, 0xBF983FE0FE5D8244ULL, 0x9F74D14F7454A824ULL,
65     0x51EBDC4AB9BA3035ULL, 0x5C82C505DB9AB0FAULL, 0xFCF7FE8A3430B241ULL,
66     0x3253A729B9BA3DDEULL, 0x8C74C368081B3075ULL, 0xB9BC6C87167C33E7ULL,
67     0x7EF48F2B83024E20ULL, 0x11D505D4C351BD7FULL, 0x6568FCA92C76A243ULL,
68     0x4DE0B0F40F32A7B8ULL, 0x96D693460CC37E5DULL, 0x42E240CB63689F2FULL,
69     0x6D2BDCDAE2919661ULL, 0x42880B0236E4D951ULL, 0x5F0F4A5898171BB6ULL,
70     0x39F890F579F92F88ULL, 0x93C5B5F47356388BULL, 0x63DC359D8D231B78ULL,
71     0xEC16CA8AEA98AD76ULL, 0x5355F900C2A82DC7ULL, 0x07FB9F855A997142ULL,
72     0x5093417AA8A7ED5EULL, 0x7BCBC38DA25A7F3CULL, 0x19FC8A768CF4B6D4ULL,
73     0x637A7780DECFC0D9ULL, 0x8249A47AEE0E41F7ULL, 0x79AD695501E7D1E8ULL,
74     0x14ACBAF4777D5776ULL, 0xF145B6BECCDEA195ULL, 0xDABF2AC8201752FCULL,
75     0x24C3C94DF9C8D3F6ULL, 0xBB6E2924F03912EAULL, 0x0CE26C0B95C980D9ULL,
76     0xA49CD132BFBF7CC4ULL, 0xE99D662AF4243939ULL, 0x27E6AD7891165C3FULL,
77     0x8535F040B9744FF1ULL, 0x54B3F4FA5F40D873ULL, 0x72B12C32127FED2BULL,
78     0xEE954D3C7B411F47ULL, 0x9A85AC909A24EAA1ULL, 0x70AC4CD9F04F21F5ULL,
79     0xF9B89D3E99A075C2ULL, 0x87B3E2B2B5C907B1ULL, 0xA366E5B8C54F48B8ULL,
80     0xAE4A9346CC3F7CF2ULL, 0x1920C04D47267BBDULL, 0x87BF02C6B49E2AE9ULL,
81     0x092237AC237F3859ULL, 0xFF07F64EF8ED14D0ULL, 0x8DE8DCA9F03CC54EULL,
82     0x9C1633264DB49C89ULL, 0xB3F22C3D0B0B38EDULL, 0x390E5FB44D01144BULL,
83     0x5BFEA5B4712768E9ULL, 0x1E1032911FA78984ULL, 0x9A74ACB964E78CB3ULL,
84     0x4F80F7A035DAFB04ULL, 0x6304D09A0B3738C4ULL, 0x2171E64683023A08ULL,
85     0x5B9B63EB9CEFF80CULL, 0x506AACF489889342ULL, 0x1881AFC9A3A701D6ULL,
86     0x6503080440750644ULL, 0xDFD395339CDBF4A7ULL, 0xEF927DBCF00C20F2ULL,
87     0x7B32F7D1E03680ECULL, 0xB9FD7620E7316243ULL, 0x05A7E8A57DB91B77ULL,
88     0xB5889C6E15630A75ULL, 0x4A750A09CE9573F7ULL, 0xCF464CEC899A2F8AULL,
89     0xF538639CE705B824ULL, 0x3C79A0FF5580EF7FULL, 0xEDE6C87F8477609DULL,
90     0x799E81F05BC93F31ULL, 0x86536B8CF3428A8CULL, 0x97D7374C60087B73ULL,
91     0xA246637CFF328532ULL, 0x043FCAE60CC0EBA0ULL, 0x920E449535DD359EULL,
92     0x70EB093B15B290CCULL, 0x73A1921916591CBDULL, 0x56436C9FE1A1AA8DULL,
93     0xEFAC4B70633B8F81ULL, 0xBB215798D45DF7AFULL, 0x45F20042F24F1768ULL,
94     0x930F80F4E8EB7462ULL, 0xFF6712FFCFD75EA1ULL, 0xAE623FD67468AA70ULL,
95     0xDD2C5BC84BC8D8FCULL, 0x7EED120D54CF2DD9ULL, 0x22FE545401165F1CULL,
96     0xC91800E98FB99929ULL, 0x808BD68E6AC10365ULL, 0xDEC468145B7605F6ULL,
97     0x1BEDE3A3AEF53302ULL, 0x43539603D6C55602ULL, 0xAA969B5C691CCB7AULL,
98     0xA87832D392EFEE56ULL, 0x65942C7B3C7E11AEULL, 0xDED2D633CAD004F6ULL,
99     0x21F08570F420E565ULL, 0xB415938D7DA94E3CULL, 0x91B859E59ECB6350ULL,
100     0x10CFF333E0ED804AULL, 0x28AED140BE0BB7DDULL, 0xC5CC1D89724FA456ULL,
101     0x5648F680F11A2741ULL, 0x2D255069F0B7DAB3ULL, 0x9BC5A38EF729ABD4ULL,
102     0xEF2F054308F6A2BCULL, 0xAF2042F5CC5C2858ULL, 0x480412BAB7F5BE2AULL,
103     0xAEF3AF4A563DFE43ULL, 0x19AFE59AE451497FULL, 0x52593803DFF1E840ULL,
104     0xF4F076E65F2CE6F0ULL, 0x11379625747D5AF3ULL, 0xBCE5D2248682C115ULL,
105     0x9DA4243DE836994FULL, 0x066F70B33FE09017ULL, 0x4DC4DE189B671A1CULL,
106     0x51039AB7712457C3ULL, 0xC07A3F80C31FB4B4ULL, 0xB46EE9C5E64A6E7CULL,
107     0xB3819A42ABE61C87ULL, 0x21A007933A522A20ULL, 0x2DF16F761598AA4FULL,
108     0x763C4A1371B368FDULL, 0xF793C46702E086A0ULL, 0xD7288E012AEB8D31ULL,
109     0xDE336A2A4BC1C44BULL, 0x0BF692B38D079F23ULL, 0x2C604A7A177326B3ULL,
110     0x4850E73E03EB6064ULL, 0xCFC447F1E53C8E1BULL, 0xB05CA3F564268D99ULL,
111     0x9AE182C8BC9474E8ULL, 0xA4FC4BD4FC5558CAULL, 0xE755178D58FC4E76ULL,
112     0x69B97DB1A4C03DFEULL, 0xF9B5B7C4ACC67C96ULL, 0xFC6A82D64B8655FBULL,
113     0x9C684CB6C4D24417ULL, 0x8EC97D2917456ED0ULL, 0x6703DF9D2924E97EULL,
114     0xC547F57E42A7444EULL, 0x78E37644E7CAD29EULL, 0xFE9A44E9362F05FAULL,
115     0x08BD35CC38336615ULL, 0x9315E5EB3A129ACEULL, 0x94061B871E04DF75ULL,
116     0xDF1D9F9D784BA010ULL, 0x3BBA57B68871B59DULL, 0xD2B7ADEEDED1F73FULL,
117     0xF7A255D83BC373F8ULL, 0xD7F4F2448C0CEB81ULL, 0xD95BE88CD210FFA7ULL,
118     0x336F52F8FF4728E7ULL, 0xA74049DAC312AC71ULL, 0xA2F61BB6E437FDB5ULL,
119     0x4F2A5CB07F6A35B3ULL, 0x87D380BDA5BF7859ULL, 0x16B9F7E06C453A21ULL,
120     0x7BA2484C8A0FD54EULL, 0xF3A678CAD9A2E38CULL, 0x39B0BF7DDE437BA2ULL,
121     0xFCAF55C1BF8A4424ULL, 0x18FCF680573FA594ULL, 0x4C0563B89F495AC3ULL,
122     0x40E087931A00930DULL, 0x8CFFA9412EB642C1ULL, 0x68CA39053261169FULL,
123     0x7A1EE967D27579E2ULL, 0x9D1D60E5076F5B6FULL, 0x3810E399B6F65BA2ULL,
124     0x32095B6D4AB5F9B1ULL, 0x35CAB62109DD038AULL, 0xA90B24499FCFAFB1ULL,
125     0x77A225A07CC2C6BDULL, 0x513E5E634C70E331ULL, 0x4361C0CA3F692F12ULL,
126     0xD941ACA44B20A45BULL, 0x528F7C8602C5807BULL, 0x52AB92BEB9613989ULL,
127     0x9D1DFA2EFC557F73ULL, 0x722FF175F572C348ULL, 0x1D1260A51107FE97ULL,
128     0x7A249A57EC0C9BA2ULL, 0x04208FE9E8F7F2D6ULL, 0x5A110C6058B920A0ULL,
129     0x0CD9A497658A5698ULL, 0x56FD23C8F9715A4CULL, 0x284C847B9D887AAEULL,
130     0x04FEABFBBDB619CBULL, 0x742E1E651C60BA83ULL, 0x9A9632E65904AD3CULL,
131     0x881B82A13B51B9E2ULL, 0x506E6744CD974924ULL, 0xB0183DB56FFC6A79ULL,
132     0x0ED9B915C66ED37EULL, 0x5E11E86D5873D484ULL, 0xF678647E3519AC6EULL,
133     0x1B85D488D0F20CC5ULL, 0xDAB9FE6525D89021ULL, 0x0D151D86ADB73615ULL,
134     0xA865A54EDCC0F019ULL, 0x93C42566AEF98FFBULL, 0x99E7AFEABE000731ULL,
135     0x48CBFF086DDF285AULL, 0x7F9B6AF1EBF78BAFULL, 0x58627E1A149BBA21ULL,
136     0x2CD16E2ABD791E33ULL, 0xD363EFF5F0977996ULL, 0x0CE2A38C344A6EEDULL,
137     0x1A804AADB9CFA741ULL, 0x907F30421D78C5DEULL, 0x501F65EDB3034D07ULL,
138     0x37624AE5A48FA6E9ULL, 0x957BAF61700CFF4EULL, 0x3A6C27934E31188AULL,
139     0xD49503536ABCA345ULL, 0x088E049589C432E0ULL, 0xF943AEE7FEBF21B8ULL,
140     0x6C3B8E3E336139D3ULL, 0x364F6FFA464EE52EULL, 0xD60F6DCEDC314222ULL,
141     0x56963B0DCA418FC0ULL, 0x16F50EDF91E513AFULL, 0xEF1955914B609F93ULL,
142     0x565601C0364E3228ULL, 0xECB53939887E8175ULL, 0xBAC7A9A18531294BULL,
143     0xB344C470397BBA52ULL, 0x65D34954DAF3CEBDULL, 0xB4B81B3FA97511E2ULL,
144     0xB422061193D6F6A7ULL, 0x071582401C38434DULL, 0x7A13F18BBEDC4FF5ULL,
145     0xBC4097B116C524D2ULL, 0x59B97885E2F2EA28ULL, 0x99170A5DC3115544ULL,
146     0x6F423357E7C6A9F9ULL, 0x325928EE6E6F8794ULL, 0xD0E4366228B03343ULL,
147     0x565C31F7DE89EA27ULL, 0x30F5611484119414ULL, 0xD873DB391292ED4FULL,
148     0x7BD94E1D8E17DEBCULL, 0xC7D9F16864A76E94ULL, 0x947AE053EE56E63CULL,
149     0xC8C93882F9475F5FULL, 0x3A9BF55BA91F81CAULL, 0xD9A11FBB3D9808E4ULL,
150     0x0FD22063EDC29FCAULL, 0xB3F256D8ACA0B0B9ULL, 0xB03031A8B4516E84ULL,
151     0x35DD37D5871448AFULL, 0xE9F6082B05542E4EULL, 0xEBFAFA33D7254B59ULL,
152     0x9255ABB50D532280ULL, 0xB9AB4CE57F2D34F3ULL, 0x693501D628297551ULL,
153     0xC62C58F97DD949BFULL, 0xCD454F8F19C5126AULL, 0xBBE83F4ECC2BDECBULL,
154     0xDC842B7E2819E230ULL, 0xBA89142E007503B8ULL, 0xA3BC941D0A5061CBULL,
155     0xE9F6760E32CD8021ULL, 0x09C7E552BC76492FULL, 0x852F54934DA55CC9ULL,
156     0x8107FCCF064FCF56ULL, 0x098954D51FFF6580ULL, 0x23B70EDB1955C4BFULL,
157     0xC330DE426430F69DULL, 0x4715ED43E8A45C0AULL, 0xA8D7E4DAB780A08DULL,
158     0x0572B974F03CE0BBULL, 0xB57D2E985E1419C7ULL, 0xE8D9ECBE2CF3D73FULL,
159     0x2FE4B17170E59750ULL, 0x11317BA87905E790ULL, 0x7FBF21EC8A1F45ECULL,
160     0x1725CABFCB045B00ULL, 0x964E915CD5E2B207ULL, 0x3E2B8BCBF016D66DULL,
161     0xBE7444E39328A0ACULL, 0xF85B2B4FBCDE44B7ULL, 0x49353FEA39BA63B1ULL,
162     0x1DD01AAFCD53486AULL, 0x1FCA8A92FD719F85ULL, 0xFC7C95D827357AFAULL,
163     0x18A6A990C8B35EBDULL, 0xCCCB7005C6B9C28DULL, 0x3BDBB92C43B17F26ULL,
164     0xAA70B5B4F89695A2ULL, 0xE94C39A54A98307FULL, 0xB7A0B174CFF6F36EULL,
165     0xD4DBA84729AF48ADULL, 0x2E18BC1AD9704A68ULL, 0x2DE0966DAF2F8B1CULL,
166     0xB9C11D5B1E43A07EULL, 0x64972D68DEE33360ULL, 0x94628D38D0C20584ULL,
167     0xDBC0D2B6AB90A559ULL, 0xD2733C4335C6A72FULL, 0x7E75D99D94A70F4DULL,
168     0x6CED1983376FA72BULL, 0x97FCAACBF030BC24ULL, 0x7B77497B32503B12ULL,
169     0x8547EDDFB81CCB94ULL, 0x79999CDFF70902CBULL, 0xCFFE1939438E9B24ULL,
170     0x829626E3892D95D7ULL, 0x92FAE24291F2B3F1ULL, 0x63E22C147B9C3403ULL,
171     0xC678B6D860284A1CULL, 0x5873888850659AE7ULL, 0x0981DCD296A8736DULL,
172     0x9F65789A6509A440ULL, 0x9FF38FED72E9052FULL, 0xE479EE5B9930578CULL,
173     0xE7F28ECD2D49EECDULL, 0x56C074A581EA17FEULL, 0x5544F7D774B14AEFULL,
174     0x7B3F0195FC6F290FULL, 0x12153635B2C0CF57ULL, 0x7F5126DBBA5E0CA7ULL,
175     0x7A76956C3EAFB413ULL, 0x3D5774A11D31AB39ULL, 0x8A1B083821F40CB4ULL,
176     0x7B4A38E32537DF62ULL, 0x950113646D1D6E03ULL, 0x4DA8979A0041E8A9ULL,
177     0x3BC36E078F7515D7ULL, 0x5D0A12F27AD310D1ULL, 0x7F9D1A2E1EBE1327ULL,
178     0xDA3A361B1C5157B1ULL, 0xDCDD7D20903D0C25ULL, 0x36833336D068F707ULL,
179     0xCE68341F79893389ULL, 0xAB9090168DD05F34ULL, 0x43954B3252DC25E5ULL,
180     0xB438C2B67F98E5E9ULL, 0x10DCD78E3851A492ULL, 0xDBC27AB5447822BFULL,
181     0x9B3CDB65F82CA382ULL, 0xB67B7896167B4C84ULL, 0xBFCED1B0048EAC50ULL,
182     0xA9119B60369FFEBDULL, 0x1FFF7AC80904BF45ULL, 0xAC12FB171817EEE7ULL,
183     0xAF08DA9177DDA93DULL, 0x1B0CAB936E65C744ULL, 0xB559EB1D04E5E932ULL,
184     0xC37B45B3F8D6F2BAULL, 0xC3A9DC228CAAC9E9ULL, 0xF3B8B6675A6507FFULL,
185     0x9FC477DE4ED681DAULL, 0x67378D8ECCEF96CBULL, 0x6DD856D94D259236ULL,
186     0xA319CE15B0B4DB31ULL, 0x073973751F12DD5EULL, 0x8A8E849EB32781A5ULL,
187     0xE1925C71285279F5ULL, 0x74C04BF1790C0EFEULL, 0x4DDA48153C94938AULL,
188     0x9D266D6A1CC0542CULL, 0x7440FB816508C4FEULL, 0x13328503DF48229FULL,
189     0xD6BF7BAEE43CAC40ULL, 0x4838D65F6EF6748FULL, 0x1E152328F3318DEAULL,
190     0x8F8419A348F296BFULL, 0x72C8834A5957B511ULL, 0xD7A023A73260B45CULL,
191     0x94EBC8ABCFB56DAEULL, 0x9FC10D0F989993E0ULL, 0xDE68A2355B93CAE6ULL,
192     0xA44CFE79AE538BBEULL, 0x9D1D84FCCE371425ULL, 0x51D2B1AB2DDFB636ULL,
193     0x2FD7E4B9E72CD38CULL, 0x65CA5B96B7552210ULL, 0xDD69A0D8AB3B546DULL,
194     0x604D51B25FBF70E2ULL, 0x73AA8A564FB7AC9EULL, 0x1A8C1E992B941148ULL,
195     0xAAC40A2703D9BEA0ULL, 0x764DBEAE7FA4F3A6ULL, 0x1E99B96E70A9BE8BULL,
196     0x2C5E9DEB57EF4743ULL, 0x3A938FEE32D29981ULL, 0x26E6DB8FFDF5ADFEULL,
197     0x469356C504EC9F9DULL, 0xC8763C5B08D1908CULL, 0x3F6C6AF859D80055ULL,
198     0x7F7CC39420A3A545ULL, 0x9BFB227EBDF4C5CEULL, 0x89039D79D6FC5C5CULL,
199     0x8FE88B57305E2AB6ULL, 0xA09E8C8C35AB96DEULL, 0xFA7E393983325753ULL,
200     0xD6B6D0ECC617C699ULL, 0xDFEA21EA9E7557E3ULL, 0xB67C1FA481680AF8ULL,
201     0xCA1E3785A9E724E5ULL, 0x1CFC8BED0D681639ULL, 0xD18D8549D140CAEAULL,
202     0x4ED0FE7E9DC91335ULL, 0xE4DBF0634473F5D2ULL, 0x1761F93A44D5AEFEULL,
203     0x53898E4C3910DA55ULL, 0x734DE8181F6EC39AULL, 0x2680B122BAA28D97ULL,
204     0x298AF231C85BAFABULL, 0x7983EED3740847D5ULL, 0x66C1A2A1A60CD889ULL,
205     0x9E17E49642A3E4C1ULL, 0xEDB454E7BADC0805ULL, 0x50B704CAB602C329ULL,
206     0x4CC317FB9CDDD023ULL, 0x66B4835D9EAFEA22ULL, 0x219B97E26FFC81BDULL,
207     0x261E4E4C0A333A9DULL, 0x1FE2CCA76517DB90ULL, 0xD7504DFA8816EDBBULL,
208     0xB9571FA04DC089C8ULL, 0x1DDC0325259B27DEULL, 0xCF3F4688801EB9AAULL,
209     0xF4F5D05C10CAB243ULL, 0x38B6525C21A42B0EULL, 0x36F60E2BA4FA6800ULL,
210     0xEB3593803173E0CEULL, 0x9C4CD6257C5A3603ULL, 0xAF0C317D32ADAA8AULL,
211     0x258E5A80C7204C4BULL, 0x8B889D624D44885DULL, 0xF4D14597E660F855ULL,
212     0xD4347F66EC8941C3ULL, 0xE699ED85B0DFB40DULL, 0x2472F6207C2D0484ULL,
213     0xC2A1E7B5B459AEB5ULL, 0xAB4F6451CC1D45ECULL, 0x63767572AE3D6174ULL,
214     0xA59E0BD101731A28ULL, 0x116D0016CB948F09ULL, 0x2CF9C8CA052F6E9FULL,
215     0x0B090A7560A968E3ULL, 0xABEEDDB2DDE06FF1ULL, 0x58EFC10B06A2068DULL,
216     0xC6E57A78FBD986E0ULL, 0x2EAB8CA63CE802D7ULL, 0x14A195640116F336ULL,
217     0x7C0828DD624EC390ULL, 0xD74BBE77E6116AC7ULL, 0x804456AF10F5FB53ULL,
218     0xEBE9EA2ADF4321C7ULL, 0x03219A39EE587A30ULL, 0x49787FEF17AF9924ULL,
219     0xA1E9300CD8520548ULL, 0x5B45E522E4B1B4EFULL, 0xB49C3B3995091A36ULL,
220     0xD4490AD526F14431ULL, 0x12A8F216AF9418C2ULL, 0x001F837CC7350524ULL,
221     0x1877B51E57A764D5ULL, 0xA2853B80F17F58EEULL, 0x993E1DE72D36D310ULL,
222     0xB3598080CE64A656ULL, 0x252F59CF0D9F04BBULL, 0xD23C8E176D113600ULL,
223     0x1BDA0492E7E4586EULL, 0x21E0BD5026C619BFULL, 0x3B097ADAF088F94EULL,
224     0x8D14DEDB30BE846EULL, 0xF95CFFA23AF5F6F4ULL, 0x3871700761B3F743ULL,
225     0xCA672B91E9E4FA16ULL, 0x64C8E531BFF53B55ULL, 0x241260ED4AD1E87DULL,
226     0x106C09B972D2E822ULL, 0x7FBA195410E5CA30ULL, 0x7884D9BC6CB569D8ULL,
227     0x0647DFEDCD894A29ULL, 0x63573FF03E224774ULL, 0x4FC8E9560F91B123ULL,
228     0x1DB956E450275779ULL, 0xB8D91274B9E9D4FBULL, 0xA2EBEE47E2FBFCE1ULL,
229     0xD9F1F30CCD97FB09ULL, 0xEFED53D75FD64E6BULL, 0x2E6D02C36017F67FULL,
230     0xA9AA4D20DB084E9BULL, 0xB64BE8D8B25396C1ULL, 0x70CB6AF7C2D5BCF0ULL,
231     0x98F076A4F7A2322EULL, 0xBF84470805E69B5FULL, 0x94C3251F06F90CF3ULL,
232     0x3E003E616A6591E9ULL, 0xB925A6CD0421AFF3ULL, 0x61BDD1307C66E300ULL,
233     0xBF8D5108E27E0D48ULL, 0x240AB57A8B888B20ULL, 0xFC87614BAF287E07ULL,
234     0xEF02CDD06FFDB432ULL, 0xA1082C0466DF6C0AULL, 0x8215E577001332C8ULL,
235     0xD39BB9C3A48DB6CFULL, 0x2738259634305C14ULL, 0x61CF4F94C97DF93DULL,
236     0x1B6BACA2AE4E125BULL, 0x758F450C88572E0BULL, 0x959F587D507A8359ULL,
237     0xB063E962E045F54DULL, 0x60E8ED72C0DFF5D1ULL, 0x7B64978555326F9FULL,
238     0xFD080D236DA814BAULL, 0x8C90FD9B083F4558ULL, 0x106F72FE81E2C590ULL,
239     0x7976033A39F7D952ULL, 0xA4EC0132764CA04BULL, 0x733EA705FAE4FA77ULL,
240     0xB4D8F77BC3E56167ULL, 0x9E21F4F903B33FD9ULL, 0x9D765E419FB69F6DULL,
241     0xD30C088BA61EA5EFULL, 0x5D94337FBFAF7F5BULL, 0x1A4E4822EB4D7A59ULL,
242     0x6FFE73E81B637FB3ULL, 0xDDF957BC36D8B9CAULL, 0x64D0E29EEA8838B3ULL,
243     0x08DD9BDFD96B9F63ULL, 0x087E79E5A57D1D13ULL, 0xE328E230E3E2B3FBULL,
244     0x1C2559E30F0946BEULL, 0x720BF5F26F4D2EAAULL, 0xB0774D261CC609DBULL,
245     0x443F64EC5A371195ULL, 0x4112CF68649A260EULL, 0xD813F2FAB7F5C5CAULL,
246     0x660D3257380841EEULL, 0x59AC2C7873F910A3ULL, 0xE846963877671A17ULL,
247     0x93B633ABFA3469F8ULL, 0xC0C0F5A60EF4CDCFULL, 0xCAF21ECD4377B28CULL,
248     0x57277707199B8175ULL, 0x506C11B9D90E8B1DULL, 0xD83CC2687A19255FULL,
249     0x4A29C6465A314CD1ULL, 0xED2DF21216235097ULL, 0xB5635C95FF7296E2ULL,
250     0x22AF003AB672E811ULL, 0x52E762596BF68235ULL, 0x9AEBA33AC6ECC6B0ULL,
251     0x944F6DE09134DFB6ULL, 0x6C47BEC883A7DE39ULL, 0x6AD047C430A12104ULL,
252     0xA5B1CFDBA0AB4067ULL, 0x7C45D833AFF07862ULL, 0x5092EF950A16DA0BULL,
253     0x9338E69C052B8E7BULL, 0x455A4B4CFE30E3F5ULL, 0x6B02E63195AD0CF8ULL,
254     0x6B17B224BAD6BF27ULL, 0xD1E0CCD25BB9C169ULL, 0xDE0C89A556B9AE70ULL,
255     0x50065E535A213CF6ULL, 0x9C1169FA2777B874ULL, 0x78EDEFD694AF1EEDULL,
256     0x6DC93D9526A50E68ULL, 0xEE97F453F06791EDULL, 0x32AB0EDB696703D3ULL,
257     0x3A6853C7E70757A7ULL, 0x31865CED6120F37DULL, 0x67FEF95D92607890ULL,
258     0x1F2B1D1F15F6DC9CULL, 0xB69E38A8965C6B65ULL, 0xAA9119FF184CCCF4ULL,
259     0xF43C732873F24C13ULL, 0xFB4A3D794A9A80D2ULL, 0x3550C2321FD6109CULL,
260     0x371F77E76BB8417EULL, 0x6BFA9AAE5EC05779ULL, 0xCD04F3FF001A4778ULL,
261     0xE3273522064480CAULL, 0x9F91508BFFCFC14AULL, 0x049A7F41061A9E60ULL,
262     0xFCB6BE43A9F2FE9BULL, 0x08DE8A1C7797DA9BULL, 0x8F9887E6078735A1ULL,
263     0xB5B4071DBFC73A66ULL, 0x230E343DFBA08D33ULL, 0x43ED7F5A0FAE657DULL,
264     0x3A88A0FBBCB05C63ULL, 0x21874B8B4D2DBC4FULL, 0x1BDEA12E35F6A8C9ULL,
265     0x53C065C6C8E63528ULL, 0xE34A1D250E7A8D6BULL, 0xD6B04D3B7651DD7EULL,
266     0x5E90277E7CB39E2DULL, 0x2C046F22062DC67DULL, 0xB10BB459132D0A26ULL,
267     0x3FA9DDFB67E2F199ULL, 0x0E09B88E1914F7AFULL, 0x10E8B35AF3EEAB37ULL,
268     0x9EEDECA8E272B933ULL, 0xD4C718BC4AE8AE5FULL, 0x81536D601170FC20ULL,
269     0x91B534F885818A06ULL, 0xEC8177F83F900978ULL, 0x190E714FADA5156EULL,
270     0xB592BF39B0364963ULL, 0x89C350C893AE7DC1ULL, 0xAC042E70F8B383F2ULL,
271     0xB49B52E587A1EE60ULL, 0xFB152FE3FF26DA89ULL, 0x3E666E6F69AE2C15ULL,
272     0x3B544EBE544C19F9ULL, 0xE805A1E290CF2456ULL, 0x24B33C9D7ED25117ULL,
273     0xE74733427B72F0C1ULL, 0x0A804D18B7097475ULL, 0x57E3306D881EDB4FULL,
274     0x4AE7D6A36EB5DBCBULL, 0x2D8D5432157064C8ULL, 0xD1E649DE1E7F268BULL,
275     0x8A328A1CEDFE552CULL, 0x07A3AEC79624C7DAULL, 0x84547DDC3E203C94ULL,
276     0x990A98FD5071D263ULL, 0x1A4FF12616EEFC89ULL, 0xF6F7FD1431714200ULL,
277     0x30C05B1BA332F41CULL, 0x8D2636B81555A786ULL, 0x46C9FEB55D120902ULL,
278     0xCCEC0A73B49C9921ULL, 0x4E9D2827355FC492ULL, 0x19EBB029435DCB0FULL,
279     0x4659D2B743848A2CULL, 0x963EF2C96B33BE31ULL, 0x74F85198B05A2E7DULL,
280     0x5A0F544DD2B1FB18ULL, 0x03727073C2E134B1ULL, 0xC7F6AA2DE59AEA61ULL,
281     0x352787BAA0D7C22FULL, 0x9853EAB63B5E0B35ULL, 0xABBDCDD7ED5C0860ULL,
282     0xCF05DAF5AC8D77B0ULL, 0x49CAD48CEBF4A71EULL, 0x7A4C10EC2158C4A6ULL,
283     0xD9E92AA246BF719EULL, 0x13AE978D09FE5557ULL, 0x730499AF921549FFULL,
284     0x4E4B705B92903BA4ULL, 0xFF577222C14F0A3AULL, 0x55B6344CF97AAFAEULL,
285     0xB862225B055B6960ULL, 0xCAC09AFBDDD2CDB4ULL, 0xDAF8E9829FE96B5FULL,
286     0xB5FDFC5D3132C498ULL, 0x310CB380DB6F7503ULL, 0xE87FBB46217A360EULL,
287     0x2102AE466EBB1148ULL, 0xF8549E1A3AA5E00DULL, 0x07A69AFDCC42261AULL,
288     0xC4C118BFE78FEAAEULL, 0xF9F4892ED96BD438ULL, 0x1AF3DBE25D8F45DAULL,
289     0xF5B4B0B0D2DEEEB4ULL, 0x962ACEEFA82E1C84ULL, 0x046E3ECAAF453CE9ULL,
290     0xF05D129681949A4CULL, 0x964781CE734B3C84ULL, 0x9C2ED44081CE5FBDULL,
291     0x522E23F3925E319EULL, 0x177E00F9FC32F791ULL, 0x2BC60A63A6F3B3F2ULL,
292     0x222BBFAE61725606ULL, 0x486289DDCC3D6780ULL, 0x7DC7785B8EFDFC80ULL,
293     0x8AF38731C02BA980ULL, 0x1FAB64EA29A2DDF7ULL, 0xE4D9429322CD065AULL,
294     0x9DA058C67844F20CULL, 0x24C0E332B70019B0ULL, 0x233003B5A6CFE6ADULL,
295     0xD586BD01C5C217F6ULL, 0x5E5637885F29BC2BULL, 0x7EBA726D8C94094BULL,
296     0x0A56A5F0BFE39272ULL, 0xD79476A84EE20D06ULL, 0x9E4C1269BAA4BF37ULL,
297     0x17EFEE45B0DEE640ULL, 0x1D95B0A5FCF90BC6ULL, 0x93CBE0B699C2585DULL,
298     0x65FA4F227A2B6D79ULL, 0xD5F9E858292504D5ULL, 0xC2B5A03F71471A6FULL,
299     0x59300222B4561E00ULL, 0xCE2F8642CA0712DCULL, 0x7CA9723FBB2E8988ULL,
300     0x2785338347F2BA08ULL, 0xC61BB3A141E50E8CULL, 0x150F361DAB9DEC26ULL,
301     0x9F6A419D382595F4ULL, 0x64A53DC924FE7AC9ULL, 0x142DE49FFF7A7C3DULL,
302     0x0C335248857FA9E7ULL, 0x0A9C32D5EAE45305ULL, 0xE6C42178C4BBB92EULL,
303     0x71F1CE2490D20B07ULL, 0xF1BCC3D275AFE51AULL, 0xE728E8C83C334074ULL,
304     0x96FBF83A12884624ULL, 0x81A1549FD6573DA5ULL, 0x5FA7867CAF35E149ULL,
305     0x56986E2EF3ED091BULL, 0x917F1DD5F8886C61ULL, 0xD20D8C88C8FFE65FULL,
306     0x31D71DCE64B2C310ULL, 0xF165B587DF898190ULL, 0xA57E6339DD2CF3A0ULL,
307     0x1EF6E6DBB1961EC9ULL, 0x70CC73D90BC26E24ULL, 0xE21A6B35DF0C3AD7ULL,
308     0x003A93D8B2806962ULL, 0x1C99DED33CB890A1ULL, 0xCF3145DE0ADD4289ULL,
309     0xD0E4427A5514FB72ULL, 0x77C621CC9FB3A483ULL, 0x67A34DAC4356550BULL,
310     0xF8D626AAAF278509ULL
311   };
312
313   // Offsets to the PolyGlotRandoms[] array of zobrist keys
314   const Key* ZobPiece     = PolyGlotRandoms;
315   const Key* ZobCastle    = ZobPiece     + 12 * 64; // Pieces * squares
316   const Key* ZobEnPassant = ZobCastle    + 4;       // Castle flags
317   const Key* ZobTurn      = ZobEnPassant + 8;       // Number of files
318
319   // book_key() returns the PolyGlot hash key of the given position
320   uint64_t book_key(const Position& pos) {
321
322     uint64_t key = 0;
323     Bitboard b = pos.pieces();
324
325     while (b)
326     {
327         // In PolyGlotRandoms[] pieces are stored in the following sequence:
328         // BP = 0, WP = 1, BN = 2, WN = 3, ... BK = 10, WK = 11
329         Square s = pop_lsb(&b);
330         Piece p = pos.piece_on(s);
331         int pieceOfs = 2 * (type_of(p) - 1) + (color_of(p) == WHITE);
332         key ^= ZobPiece[64 * pieceOfs + s];
333     }
334
335     b = pos.can_castle(ALL_CASTLES);
336
337     while (b)
338         key ^= ZobCastle[pop_lsb(&b)];
339
340     if (pos.ep_square() != SQ_NONE)
341         key ^= ZobEnPassant[file_of(pos.ep_square())];
342
343     if (pos.side_to_move() == WHITE)
344         key ^= ZobTurn[0];
345
346     return key;
347   }
348
349 } // namespace
350
351 PolyglotBook::PolyglotBook() {
352
353   for (int i = Time::now() % 10000; i > 0; i--)
354       RKiss.rand<unsigned>(); // Make random number generation less deterministic
355 }
356
357 PolyglotBook::~PolyglotBook() { if (is_open()) close(); }
358
359
360 /// operator>>() reads sizeof(T) chars from the file's binary byte stream and
361 /// converts them in a number of type T. A Polyglot book stores numbers in
362 /// big-endian format.
363
364 template<typename T> PolyglotBook& PolyglotBook::operator>>(T& n) {
365
366   n = 0;
367   for (size_t i = 0; i < sizeof(T); i++)
368       n = T((n << 8) + ifstream::get());
369
370   return *this;
371 }
372
373 template<> PolyglotBook& PolyglotBook::operator>>(BookEntry& e) {
374   return *this >> e.key >> e.move >> e.count >> e.learn;
375 }
376
377
378 /// open() tries to open a book file with the given name after closing any
379 /// exsisting one.
380
381 bool PolyglotBook::open(const char* fName) {
382
383   if (is_open()) // Cannot close an already closed file
384       close();
385
386   ifstream::open(fName, ifstream::in | ifstream::binary);
387
388   fileName = is_open() ? fName : "";
389   ifstream::clear(); // Reset any error flag to allow retry ifstream::open()
390   return !fileName.empty();
391 }
392
393
394 /// probe() tries to find a book move for the given position. If no move is
395 /// found returns MOVE_NONE. If pickBest is true returns always the highest
396 /// rated move, otherwise randomly chooses one, based on the move score.
397
398 Move PolyglotBook::probe(const Position& pos, const string& fName, bool pickBest) {
399
400   if (fileName != fName && !open(fName.c_str()))
401       return MOVE_NONE;
402
403   BookEntry e;
404   uint16_t best = 0;
405   unsigned sum = 0;
406   Move move = MOVE_NONE;
407   uint64_t key = book_key(pos);
408
409   seekg(find_first(key) * sizeof(BookEntry), ios_base::beg);
410
411   while (*this >> e, e.key == key && good())
412   {
413       best = max(best, e.count);
414       sum += e.count;
415
416       // Choose book move according to its score. If a move has a very
417       // high score it has higher probability to be choosen than a move
418       // with lower score. Note that first entry is always chosen.
419       if (   (sum && RKiss.rand<unsigned>() % sum < e.count)
420           || (pickBest && e.count == best))
421           move = Move(e.move);
422   }
423
424   if (!move)
425       return MOVE_NONE;
426
427   // A PolyGlot book move is encoded as follows:
428   //
429   // bit  0- 5: destination square (from 0 to 63)
430   // bit  6-11: origin square (from 0 to 63)
431   // bit 12-14: promotion piece (from KNIGHT == 1 to QUEEN == 4)
432   //
433   // Castling moves follow "king captures rook" representation. So in case book
434   // move is a promotion we have to convert to our representation, in all the
435   // other cases we can directly compare with a Move after having masked out
436   // the special Move's flags (bit 14-15) that are not supported by PolyGlot.
437   int pt = (move >> 12) & 7;
438   if (pt)
439       move = make<PROMOTION>(from_sq(move), to_sq(move), PieceType(pt + 1));
440
441   // Add 'special move' flags and verify it is legal
442   for (MoveList<LEGAL> ml(pos); !ml.end(); ++ml)
443       if (move == (ml.move() & 0x3FFF))
444           return ml.move();
445
446   return MOVE_NONE;
447 }
448
449
450 /// find_first() takes a book key as input, and does a binary search through
451 /// the book file for the given key. Returns the index of the leftmost book
452 /// entry with the same key as the input.
453
454 size_t PolyglotBook::find_first(uint64_t key) {
455
456   seekg(0, ios::end); // Move pointer to end, so tellg() gets file's size
457
458   size_t low = 0, mid, high = (size_t)tellg() / sizeof(BookEntry) - 1;
459   BookEntry e;
460
461   assert(low <= high);
462
463   while (low < high && good())
464   {
465       mid = (low + high) / 2;
466
467       assert(mid >= low && mid < high);
468
469       seekg(mid * sizeof(BookEntry), ios_base::beg);
470       *this >> e;
471
472       if (key <= e.key)
473           high = mid;
474       else
475           low = mid + 1;
476   }
477
478   assert(low == high);
479
480   return low;
481 }