Unify move generation
[stockfish] / src / book.cpp
1 /*
2   Stockfish, a UCI chess playing engine derived from Glaurung 2.1
3   Copyright (C) 2004-2008 Tord Romstad (Glaurung author)
4   Copyright (C) 2008-2010 Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, Tord Romstad
5
6   Stockfish is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
7   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
8   the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
9   (at your option) any later version.
10
11   Stockfish is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
12   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
13   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
14   GNU General Public License for more details.
15
16   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
17   along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
18 */
19
20
21 /*
22   The code in this file is based on the opening book code in PolyGlot
23   by Fabien Letouzey.  PolyGlot is available under the GNU General
24   Public License, and can be downloaded from http://wbec-ridderkerk.nl
25 */
26
27
28 ////
29 //// Includes
30 ////
31
32 #include <cassert>
33 #include <iostream>
34
35 #include "book.h"
36 #include "movegen.h"
37
38 using namespace std;
39
40 ////
41 //// Local definitions
42 ////
43
44 namespace {
45
46   // Book entry size in bytes
47   const int EntrySize = 16;
48
49   // Random numbers from PolyGlot, used to compute book hash keys
50   const uint64_t Random64[781] = {
51     0x9D39247E33776D41ULL, 0x2AF7398005AAA5C7ULL, 0x44DB015024623547ULL,
52     0x9C15F73E62A76AE2ULL, 0x75834465489C0C89ULL, 0x3290AC3A203001BFULL,
53     0x0FBBAD1F61042279ULL, 0xE83A908FF2FB60CAULL, 0x0D7E765D58755C10ULL,
54     0x1A083822CEAFE02DULL, 0x9605D5F0E25EC3B0ULL, 0xD021FF5CD13A2ED5ULL,
55     0x40BDF15D4A672E32ULL, 0x011355146FD56395ULL, 0x5DB4832046F3D9E5ULL,
56     0x239F8B2D7FF719CCULL, 0x05D1A1AE85B49AA1ULL, 0x679F848F6E8FC971ULL,
57     0x7449BBFF801FED0BULL, 0x7D11CDB1C3B7ADF0ULL, 0x82C7709E781EB7CCULL,
58     0xF3218F1C9510786CULL, 0x331478F3AF51BBE6ULL, 0x4BB38DE5E7219443ULL,
59     0xAA649C6EBCFD50FCULL, 0x8DBD98A352AFD40BULL, 0x87D2074B81D79217ULL,
60     0x19F3C751D3E92AE1ULL, 0xB4AB30F062B19ABFULL, 0x7B0500AC42047AC4ULL,
61     0xC9452CA81A09D85DULL, 0x24AA6C514DA27500ULL, 0x4C9F34427501B447ULL,
62     0x14A68FD73C910841ULL, 0xA71B9B83461CBD93ULL, 0x03488B95B0F1850FULL,
63     0x637B2B34FF93C040ULL, 0x09D1BC9A3DD90A94ULL, 0x3575668334A1DD3BULL,
64     0x735E2B97A4C45A23ULL, 0x18727070F1BD400BULL, 0x1FCBACD259BF02E7ULL,
65     0xD310A7C2CE9B6555ULL, 0xBF983FE0FE5D8244ULL, 0x9F74D14F7454A824ULL,
66     0x51EBDC4AB9BA3035ULL, 0x5C82C505DB9AB0FAULL, 0xFCF7FE8A3430B241ULL,
67     0x3253A729B9BA3DDEULL, 0x8C74C368081B3075ULL, 0xB9BC6C87167C33E7ULL,
68     0x7EF48F2B83024E20ULL, 0x11D505D4C351BD7FULL, 0x6568FCA92C76A243ULL,
69     0x4DE0B0F40F32A7B8ULL, 0x96D693460CC37E5DULL, 0x42E240CB63689F2FULL,
70     0x6D2BDCDAE2919661ULL, 0x42880B0236E4D951ULL, 0x5F0F4A5898171BB6ULL,
71     0x39F890F579F92F88ULL, 0x93C5B5F47356388BULL, 0x63DC359D8D231B78ULL,
72     0xEC16CA8AEA98AD76ULL, 0x5355F900C2A82DC7ULL, 0x07FB9F855A997142ULL,
73     0x5093417AA8A7ED5EULL, 0x7BCBC38DA25A7F3CULL, 0x19FC8A768CF4B6D4ULL,
74     0x637A7780DECFC0D9ULL, 0x8249A47AEE0E41F7ULL, 0x79AD695501E7D1E8ULL,
75     0x14ACBAF4777D5776ULL, 0xF145B6BECCDEA195ULL, 0xDABF2AC8201752FCULL,
76     0x24C3C94DF9C8D3F6ULL, 0xBB6E2924F03912EAULL, 0x0CE26C0B95C980D9ULL,
77     0xA49CD132BFBF7CC4ULL, 0xE99D662AF4243939ULL, 0x27E6AD7891165C3FULL,
78     0x8535F040B9744FF1ULL, 0x54B3F4FA5F40D873ULL, 0x72B12C32127FED2BULL,
79     0xEE954D3C7B411F47ULL, 0x9A85AC909A24EAA1ULL, 0x70AC4CD9F04F21F5ULL,
80     0xF9B89D3E99A075C2ULL, 0x87B3E2B2B5C907B1ULL, 0xA366E5B8C54F48B8ULL,
81     0xAE4A9346CC3F7CF2ULL, 0x1920C04D47267BBDULL, 0x87BF02C6B49E2AE9ULL,
82     0x092237AC237F3859ULL, 0xFF07F64EF8ED14D0ULL, 0x8DE8DCA9F03CC54EULL,
83     0x9C1633264DB49C89ULL, 0xB3F22C3D0B0B38EDULL, 0x390E5FB44D01144BULL,
84     0x5BFEA5B4712768E9ULL, 0x1E1032911FA78984ULL, 0x9A74ACB964E78CB3ULL,
85     0x4F80F7A035DAFB04ULL, 0x6304D09A0B3738C4ULL, 0x2171E64683023A08ULL,
86     0x5B9B63EB9CEFF80CULL, 0x506AACF489889342ULL, 0x1881AFC9A3A701D6ULL,
87     0x6503080440750644ULL, 0xDFD395339CDBF4A7ULL, 0xEF927DBCF00C20F2ULL,
88     0x7B32F7D1E03680ECULL, 0xB9FD7620E7316243ULL, 0x05A7E8A57DB91B77ULL,
89     0xB5889C6E15630A75ULL, 0x4A750A09CE9573F7ULL, 0xCF464CEC899A2F8AULL,
90     0xF538639CE705B824ULL, 0x3C79A0FF5580EF7FULL, 0xEDE6C87F8477609DULL,
91     0x799E81F05BC93F31ULL, 0x86536B8CF3428A8CULL, 0x97D7374C60087B73ULL,
92     0xA246637CFF328532ULL, 0x043FCAE60CC0EBA0ULL, 0x920E449535DD359EULL,
93     0x70EB093B15B290CCULL, 0x73A1921916591CBDULL, 0x56436C9FE1A1AA8DULL,
94     0xEFAC4B70633B8F81ULL, 0xBB215798D45DF7AFULL, 0x45F20042F24F1768ULL,
95     0x930F80F4E8EB7462ULL, 0xFF6712FFCFD75EA1ULL, 0xAE623FD67468AA70ULL,
96     0xDD2C5BC84BC8D8FCULL, 0x7EED120D54CF2DD9ULL, 0x22FE545401165F1CULL,
97     0xC91800E98FB99929ULL, 0x808BD68E6AC10365ULL, 0xDEC468145B7605F6ULL,
98     0x1BEDE3A3AEF53302ULL, 0x43539603D6C55602ULL, 0xAA969B5C691CCB7AULL,
99     0xA87832D392EFEE56ULL, 0x65942C7B3C7E11AEULL, 0xDED2D633CAD004F6ULL,
100     0x21F08570F420E565ULL, 0xB415938D7DA94E3CULL, 0x91B859E59ECB6350ULL,
101     0x10CFF333E0ED804AULL, 0x28AED140BE0BB7DDULL, 0xC5CC1D89724FA456ULL,
102     0x5648F680F11A2741ULL, 0x2D255069F0B7DAB3ULL, 0x9BC5A38EF729ABD4ULL,
103     0xEF2F054308F6A2BCULL, 0xAF2042F5CC5C2858ULL, 0x480412BAB7F5BE2AULL,
104     0xAEF3AF4A563DFE43ULL, 0x19AFE59AE451497FULL, 0x52593803DFF1E840ULL,
105     0xF4F076E65F2CE6F0ULL, 0x11379625747D5AF3ULL, 0xBCE5D2248682C115ULL,
106     0x9DA4243DE836994FULL, 0x066F70B33FE09017ULL, 0x4DC4DE189B671A1CULL,
107     0x51039AB7712457C3ULL, 0xC07A3F80C31FB4B4ULL, 0xB46EE9C5E64A6E7CULL,
108     0xB3819A42ABE61C87ULL, 0x21A007933A522A20ULL, 0x2DF16F761598AA4FULL,
109     0x763C4A1371B368FDULL, 0xF793C46702E086A0ULL, 0xD7288E012AEB8D31ULL,
110     0xDE336A2A4BC1C44BULL, 0x0BF692B38D079F23ULL, 0x2C604A7A177326B3ULL,
111     0x4850E73E03EB6064ULL, 0xCFC447F1E53C8E1BULL, 0xB05CA3F564268D99ULL,
112     0x9AE182C8BC9474E8ULL, 0xA4FC4BD4FC5558CAULL, 0xE755178D58FC4E76ULL,
113     0x69B97DB1A4C03DFEULL, 0xF9B5B7C4ACC67C96ULL, 0xFC6A82D64B8655FBULL,
114     0x9C684CB6C4D24417ULL, 0x8EC97D2917456ED0ULL, 0x6703DF9D2924E97EULL,
115     0xC547F57E42A7444EULL, 0x78E37644E7CAD29EULL, 0xFE9A44E9362F05FAULL,
116     0x08BD35CC38336615ULL, 0x9315E5EB3A129ACEULL, 0x94061B871E04DF75ULL,
117     0xDF1D9F9D784BA010ULL, 0x3BBA57B68871B59DULL, 0xD2B7ADEEDED1F73FULL,
118     0xF7A255D83BC373F8ULL, 0xD7F4F2448C0CEB81ULL, 0xD95BE88CD210FFA7ULL,
119     0x336F52F8FF4728E7ULL, 0xA74049DAC312AC71ULL, 0xA2F61BB6E437FDB5ULL,
120     0x4F2A5CB07F6A35B3ULL, 0x87D380BDA5BF7859ULL, 0x16B9F7E06C453A21ULL,
121     0x7BA2484C8A0FD54EULL, 0xF3A678CAD9A2E38CULL, 0x39B0BF7DDE437BA2ULL,
122     0xFCAF55C1BF8A4424ULL, 0x18FCF680573FA594ULL, 0x4C0563B89F495AC3ULL,
123     0x40E087931A00930DULL, 0x8CFFA9412EB642C1ULL, 0x68CA39053261169FULL,
124     0x7A1EE967D27579E2ULL, 0x9D1D60E5076F5B6FULL, 0x3810E399B6F65BA2ULL,
125     0x32095B6D4AB5F9B1ULL, 0x35CAB62109DD038AULL, 0xA90B24499FCFAFB1ULL,
126     0x77A225A07CC2C6BDULL, 0x513E5E634C70E331ULL, 0x4361C0CA3F692F12ULL,
127     0xD941ACA44B20A45BULL, 0x528F7C8602C5807BULL, 0x52AB92BEB9613989ULL,
128     0x9D1DFA2EFC557F73ULL, 0x722FF175F572C348ULL, 0x1D1260A51107FE97ULL,
129     0x7A249A57EC0C9BA2ULL, 0x04208FE9E8F7F2D6ULL, 0x5A110C6058B920A0ULL,
130     0x0CD9A497658A5698ULL, 0x56FD23C8F9715A4CULL, 0x284C847B9D887AAEULL,
131     0x04FEABFBBDB619CBULL, 0x742E1E651C60BA83ULL, 0x9A9632E65904AD3CULL,
132     0x881B82A13B51B9E2ULL, 0x506E6744CD974924ULL, 0xB0183DB56FFC6A79ULL,
133     0x0ED9B915C66ED37EULL, 0x5E11E86D5873D484ULL, 0xF678647E3519AC6EULL,
134     0x1B85D488D0F20CC5ULL, 0xDAB9FE6525D89021ULL, 0x0D151D86ADB73615ULL,
135     0xA865A54EDCC0F019ULL, 0x93C42566AEF98FFBULL, 0x99E7AFEABE000731ULL,
136     0x48CBFF086DDF285AULL, 0x7F9B6AF1EBF78BAFULL, 0x58627E1A149BBA21ULL,
137     0x2CD16E2ABD791E33ULL, 0xD363EFF5F0977996ULL, 0x0CE2A38C344A6EEDULL,
138     0x1A804AADB9CFA741ULL, 0x907F30421D78C5DEULL, 0x501F65EDB3034D07ULL,
139     0x37624AE5A48FA6E9ULL, 0x957BAF61700CFF4EULL, 0x3A6C27934E31188AULL,
140     0xD49503536ABCA345ULL, 0x088E049589C432E0ULL, 0xF943AEE7FEBF21B8ULL,
141     0x6C3B8E3E336139D3ULL, 0x364F6FFA464EE52EULL, 0xD60F6DCEDC314222ULL,
142     0x56963B0DCA418FC0ULL, 0x16F50EDF91E513AFULL, 0xEF1955914B609F93ULL,
143     0x565601C0364E3228ULL, 0xECB53939887E8175ULL, 0xBAC7A9A18531294BULL,
144     0xB344C470397BBA52ULL, 0x65D34954DAF3CEBDULL, 0xB4B81B3FA97511E2ULL,
145     0xB422061193D6F6A7ULL, 0x071582401C38434DULL, 0x7A13F18BBEDC4FF5ULL,
146     0xBC4097B116C524D2ULL, 0x59B97885E2F2EA28ULL, 0x99170A5DC3115544ULL,
147     0x6F423357E7C6A9F9ULL, 0x325928EE6E6F8794ULL, 0xD0E4366228B03343ULL,
148     0x565C31F7DE89EA27ULL, 0x30F5611484119414ULL, 0xD873DB391292ED4FULL,
149     0x7BD94E1D8E17DEBCULL, 0xC7D9F16864A76E94ULL, 0x947AE053EE56E63CULL,
150     0xC8C93882F9475F5FULL, 0x3A9BF55BA91F81CAULL, 0xD9A11FBB3D9808E4ULL,
151     0x0FD22063EDC29FCAULL, 0xB3F256D8ACA0B0B9ULL, 0xB03031A8B4516E84ULL,
152     0x35DD37D5871448AFULL, 0xE9F6082B05542E4EULL, 0xEBFAFA33D7254B59ULL,
153     0x9255ABB50D532280ULL, 0xB9AB4CE57F2D34F3ULL, 0x693501D628297551ULL,
154     0xC62C58F97DD949BFULL, 0xCD454F8F19C5126AULL, 0xBBE83F4ECC2BDECBULL,
155     0xDC842B7E2819E230ULL, 0xBA89142E007503B8ULL, 0xA3BC941D0A5061CBULL,
156     0xE9F6760E32CD8021ULL, 0x09C7E552BC76492FULL, 0x852F54934DA55CC9ULL,
157     0x8107FCCF064FCF56ULL, 0x098954D51FFF6580ULL, 0x23B70EDB1955C4BFULL,
158     0xC330DE426430F69DULL, 0x4715ED43E8A45C0AULL, 0xA8D7E4DAB780A08DULL,
159     0x0572B974F03CE0BBULL, 0xB57D2E985E1419C7ULL, 0xE8D9ECBE2CF3D73FULL,
160     0x2FE4B17170E59750ULL, 0x11317BA87905E790ULL, 0x7FBF21EC8A1F45ECULL,
161     0x1725CABFCB045B00ULL, 0x964E915CD5E2B207ULL, 0x3E2B8BCBF016D66DULL,
162     0xBE7444E39328A0ACULL, 0xF85B2B4FBCDE44B7ULL, 0x49353FEA39BA63B1ULL,
163     0x1DD01AAFCD53486AULL, 0x1FCA8A92FD719F85ULL, 0xFC7C95D827357AFAULL,
164     0x18A6A990C8B35EBDULL, 0xCCCB7005C6B9C28DULL, 0x3BDBB92C43B17F26ULL,
165     0xAA70B5B4F89695A2ULL, 0xE94C39A54A98307FULL, 0xB7A0B174CFF6F36EULL,
166     0xD4DBA84729AF48ADULL, 0x2E18BC1AD9704A68ULL, 0x2DE0966DAF2F8B1CULL,
167     0xB9C11D5B1E43A07EULL, 0x64972D68DEE33360ULL, 0x94628D38D0C20584ULL,
168     0xDBC0D2B6AB90A559ULL, 0xD2733C4335C6A72FULL, 0x7E75D99D94A70F4DULL,
169     0x6CED1983376FA72BULL, 0x97FCAACBF030BC24ULL, 0x7B77497B32503B12ULL,
170     0x8547EDDFB81CCB94ULL, 0x79999CDFF70902CBULL, 0xCFFE1939438E9B24ULL,
171     0x829626E3892D95D7ULL, 0x92FAE24291F2B3F1ULL, 0x63E22C147B9C3403ULL,
172     0xC678B6D860284A1CULL, 0x5873888850659AE7ULL, 0x0981DCD296A8736DULL,
173     0x9F65789A6509A440ULL, 0x9FF38FED72E9052FULL, 0xE479EE5B9930578CULL,
174     0xE7F28ECD2D49EECDULL, 0x56C074A581EA17FEULL, 0x5544F7D774B14AEFULL,
175     0x7B3F0195FC6F290FULL, 0x12153635B2C0CF57ULL, 0x7F5126DBBA5E0CA7ULL,
176     0x7A76956C3EAFB413ULL, 0x3D5774A11D31AB39ULL, 0x8A1B083821F40CB4ULL,
177     0x7B4A38E32537DF62ULL, 0x950113646D1D6E03ULL, 0x4DA8979A0041E8A9ULL,
178     0x3BC36E078F7515D7ULL, 0x5D0A12F27AD310D1ULL, 0x7F9D1A2E1EBE1327ULL,
179     0xDA3A361B1C5157B1ULL, 0xDCDD7D20903D0C25ULL, 0x36833336D068F707ULL,
180     0xCE68341F79893389ULL, 0xAB9090168DD05F34ULL, 0x43954B3252DC25E5ULL,
181     0xB438C2B67F98E5E9ULL, 0x10DCD78E3851A492ULL, 0xDBC27AB5447822BFULL,
182     0x9B3CDB65F82CA382ULL, 0xB67B7896167B4C84ULL, 0xBFCED1B0048EAC50ULL,
183     0xA9119B60369FFEBDULL, 0x1FFF7AC80904BF45ULL, 0xAC12FB171817EEE7ULL,
184     0xAF08DA9177DDA93DULL, 0x1B0CAB936E65C744ULL, 0xB559EB1D04E5E932ULL,
185     0xC37B45B3F8D6F2BAULL, 0xC3A9DC228CAAC9E9ULL, 0xF3B8B6675A6507FFULL,
186     0x9FC477DE4ED681DAULL, 0x67378D8ECCEF96CBULL, 0x6DD856D94D259236ULL,
187     0xA319CE15B0B4DB31ULL, 0x073973751F12DD5EULL, 0x8A8E849EB32781A5ULL,
188     0xE1925C71285279F5ULL, 0x74C04BF1790C0EFEULL, 0x4DDA48153C94938AULL,
189     0x9D266D6A1CC0542CULL, 0x7440FB816508C4FEULL, 0x13328503DF48229FULL,
190     0xD6BF7BAEE43CAC40ULL, 0x4838D65F6EF6748FULL, 0x1E152328F3318DEAULL,
191     0x8F8419A348F296BFULL, 0x72C8834A5957B511ULL, 0xD7A023A73260B45CULL,
192     0x94EBC8ABCFB56DAEULL, 0x9FC10D0F989993E0ULL, 0xDE68A2355B93CAE6ULL,
193     0xA44CFE79AE538BBEULL, 0x9D1D84FCCE371425ULL, 0x51D2B1AB2DDFB636ULL,
194     0x2FD7E4B9E72CD38CULL, 0x65CA5B96B7552210ULL, 0xDD69A0D8AB3B546DULL,
195     0x604D51B25FBF70E2ULL, 0x73AA8A564FB7AC9EULL, 0x1A8C1E992B941148ULL,
196     0xAAC40A2703D9BEA0ULL, 0x764DBEAE7FA4F3A6ULL, 0x1E99B96E70A9BE8BULL,
197     0x2C5E9DEB57EF4743ULL, 0x3A938FEE32D29981ULL, 0x26E6DB8FFDF5ADFEULL,
198     0x469356C504EC9F9DULL, 0xC8763C5B08D1908CULL, 0x3F6C6AF859D80055ULL,
199     0x7F7CC39420A3A545ULL, 0x9BFB227EBDF4C5CEULL, 0x89039D79D6FC5C5CULL,
200     0x8FE88B57305E2AB6ULL, 0xA09E8C8C35AB96DEULL, 0xFA7E393983325753ULL,
201     0xD6B6D0ECC617C699ULL, 0xDFEA21EA9E7557E3ULL, 0xB67C1FA481680AF8ULL,
202     0xCA1E3785A9E724E5ULL, 0x1CFC8BED0D681639ULL, 0xD18D8549D140CAEAULL,
203     0x4ED0FE7E9DC91335ULL, 0xE4DBF0634473F5D2ULL, 0x1761F93A44D5AEFEULL,
204     0x53898E4C3910DA55ULL, 0x734DE8181F6EC39AULL, 0x2680B122BAA28D97ULL,
205     0x298AF231C85BAFABULL, 0x7983EED3740847D5ULL, 0x66C1A2A1A60CD889ULL,
206     0x9E17E49642A3E4C1ULL, 0xEDB454E7BADC0805ULL, 0x50B704CAB602C329ULL,
207     0x4CC317FB9CDDD023ULL, 0x66B4835D9EAFEA22ULL, 0x219B97E26FFC81BDULL,
208     0x261E4E4C0A333A9DULL, 0x1FE2CCA76517DB90ULL, 0xD7504DFA8816EDBBULL,
209     0xB9571FA04DC089C8ULL, 0x1DDC0325259B27DEULL, 0xCF3F4688801EB9AAULL,
210     0xF4F5D05C10CAB243ULL, 0x38B6525C21A42B0EULL, 0x36F60E2BA4FA6800ULL,
211     0xEB3593803173E0CEULL, 0x9C4CD6257C5A3603ULL, 0xAF0C317D32ADAA8AULL,
212     0x258E5A80C7204C4BULL, 0x8B889D624D44885DULL, 0xF4D14597E660F855ULL,
213     0xD4347F66EC8941C3ULL, 0xE699ED85B0DFB40DULL, 0x2472F6207C2D0484ULL,
214     0xC2A1E7B5B459AEB5ULL, 0xAB4F6451CC1D45ECULL, 0x63767572AE3D6174ULL,
215     0xA59E0BD101731A28ULL, 0x116D0016CB948F09ULL, 0x2CF9C8CA052F6E9FULL,
216     0x0B090A7560A968E3ULL, 0xABEEDDB2DDE06FF1ULL, 0x58EFC10B06A2068DULL,
217     0xC6E57A78FBD986E0ULL, 0x2EAB8CA63CE802D7ULL, 0x14A195640116F336ULL,
218     0x7C0828DD624EC390ULL, 0xD74BBE77E6116AC7ULL, 0x804456AF10F5FB53ULL,
219     0xEBE9EA2ADF4321C7ULL, 0x03219A39EE587A30ULL, 0x49787FEF17AF9924ULL,
220     0xA1E9300CD8520548ULL, 0x5B45E522E4B1B4EFULL, 0xB49C3B3995091A36ULL,
221     0xD4490AD526F14431ULL, 0x12A8F216AF9418C2ULL, 0x001F837CC7350524ULL,
222     0x1877B51E57A764D5ULL, 0xA2853B80F17F58EEULL, 0x993E1DE72D36D310ULL,
223     0xB3598080CE64A656ULL, 0x252F59CF0D9F04BBULL, 0xD23C8E176D113600ULL,
224     0x1BDA0492E7E4586EULL, 0x21E0BD5026C619BFULL, 0x3B097ADAF088F94EULL,
225     0x8D14DEDB30BE846EULL, 0xF95CFFA23AF5F6F4ULL, 0x3871700761B3F743ULL,
226     0xCA672B91E9E4FA16ULL, 0x64C8E531BFF53B55ULL, 0x241260ED4AD1E87DULL,
227     0x106C09B972D2E822ULL, 0x7FBA195410E5CA30ULL, 0x7884D9BC6CB569D8ULL,
228     0x0647DFEDCD894A29ULL, 0x63573FF03E224774ULL, 0x4FC8E9560F91B123ULL,
229     0x1DB956E450275779ULL, 0xB8D91274B9E9D4FBULL, 0xA2EBEE47E2FBFCE1ULL,
230     0xD9F1F30CCD97FB09ULL, 0xEFED53D75FD64E6BULL, 0x2E6D02C36017F67FULL,
231     0xA9AA4D20DB084E9BULL, 0xB64BE8D8B25396C1ULL, 0x70CB6AF7C2D5BCF0ULL,
232     0x98F076A4F7A2322EULL, 0xBF84470805E69B5FULL, 0x94C3251F06F90CF3ULL,
233     0x3E003E616A6591E9ULL, 0xB925A6CD0421AFF3ULL, 0x61BDD1307C66E300ULL,
234     0xBF8D5108E27E0D48ULL, 0x240AB57A8B888B20ULL, 0xFC87614BAF287E07ULL,
235     0xEF02CDD06FFDB432ULL, 0xA1082C0466DF6C0AULL, 0x8215E577001332C8ULL,
236     0xD39BB9C3A48DB6CFULL, 0x2738259634305C14ULL, 0x61CF4F94C97DF93DULL,
237     0x1B6BACA2AE4E125BULL, 0x758F450C88572E0BULL, 0x959F587D507A8359ULL,
238     0xB063E962E045F54DULL, 0x60E8ED72C0DFF5D1ULL, 0x7B64978555326F9FULL,
239     0xFD080D236DA814BAULL, 0x8C90FD9B083F4558ULL, 0x106F72FE81E2C590ULL,
240     0x7976033A39F7D952ULL, 0xA4EC0132764CA04BULL, 0x733EA705FAE4FA77ULL,
241     0xB4D8F77BC3E56167ULL, 0x9E21F4F903B33FD9ULL, 0x9D765E419FB69F6DULL,
242     0xD30C088BA61EA5EFULL, 0x5D94337FBFAF7F5BULL, 0x1A4E4822EB4D7A59ULL,
243     0x6FFE73E81B637FB3ULL, 0xDDF957BC36D8B9CAULL, 0x64D0E29EEA8838B3ULL,
244     0x08DD9BDFD96B9F63ULL, 0x087E79E5A57D1D13ULL, 0xE328E230E3E2B3FBULL,
245     0x1C2559E30F0946BEULL, 0x720BF5F26F4D2EAAULL, 0xB0774D261CC609DBULL,
246     0x443F64EC5A371195ULL, 0x4112CF68649A260EULL, 0xD813F2FAB7F5C5CAULL,
247     0x660D3257380841EEULL, 0x59AC2C7873F910A3ULL, 0xE846963877671A17ULL,
248     0x93B633ABFA3469F8ULL, 0xC0C0F5A60EF4CDCFULL, 0xCAF21ECD4377B28CULL,
249     0x57277707199B8175ULL, 0x506C11B9D90E8B1DULL, 0xD83CC2687A19255FULL,
250     0x4A29C6465A314CD1ULL, 0xED2DF21216235097ULL, 0xB5635C95FF7296E2ULL,
251     0x22AF003AB672E811ULL, 0x52E762596BF68235ULL, 0x9AEBA33AC6ECC6B0ULL,
252     0x944F6DE09134DFB6ULL, 0x6C47BEC883A7DE39ULL, 0x6AD047C430A12104ULL,
253     0xA5B1CFDBA0AB4067ULL, 0x7C45D833AFF07862ULL, 0x5092EF950A16DA0BULL,
254     0x9338E69C052B8E7BULL, 0x455A4B4CFE30E3F5ULL, 0x6B02E63195AD0CF8ULL,
255     0x6B17B224BAD6BF27ULL, 0xD1E0CCD25BB9C169ULL, 0xDE0C89A556B9AE70ULL,
256     0x50065E535A213CF6ULL, 0x9C1169FA2777B874ULL, 0x78EDEFD694AF1EEDULL,
257     0x6DC93D9526A50E68ULL, 0xEE97F453F06791EDULL, 0x32AB0EDB696703D3ULL,
258     0x3A6853C7E70757A7ULL, 0x31865CED6120F37DULL, 0x67FEF95D92607890ULL,
259     0x1F2B1D1F15F6DC9CULL, 0xB69E38A8965C6B65ULL, 0xAA9119FF184CCCF4ULL,
260     0xF43C732873F24C13ULL, 0xFB4A3D794A9A80D2ULL, 0x3550C2321FD6109CULL,
261     0x371F77E76BB8417EULL, 0x6BFA9AAE5EC05779ULL, 0xCD04F3FF001A4778ULL,
262     0xE3273522064480CAULL, 0x9F91508BFFCFC14AULL, 0x049A7F41061A9E60ULL,
263     0xFCB6BE43A9F2FE9BULL, 0x08DE8A1C7797DA9BULL, 0x8F9887E6078735A1ULL,
264     0xB5B4071DBFC73A66ULL, 0x230E343DFBA08D33ULL, 0x43ED7F5A0FAE657DULL,
265     0x3A88A0FBBCB05C63ULL, 0x21874B8B4D2DBC4FULL, 0x1BDEA12E35F6A8C9ULL,
266     0x53C065C6C8E63528ULL, 0xE34A1D250E7A8D6BULL, 0xD6B04D3B7651DD7EULL,
267     0x5E90277E7CB39E2DULL, 0x2C046F22062DC67DULL, 0xB10BB459132D0A26ULL,
268     0x3FA9DDFB67E2F199ULL, 0x0E09B88E1914F7AFULL, 0x10E8B35AF3EEAB37ULL,
269     0x9EEDECA8E272B933ULL, 0xD4C718BC4AE8AE5FULL, 0x81536D601170FC20ULL,
270     0x91B534F885818A06ULL, 0xEC8177F83F900978ULL, 0x190E714FADA5156EULL,
271     0xB592BF39B0364963ULL, 0x89C350C893AE7DC1ULL, 0xAC042E70F8B383F2ULL,
272     0xB49B52E587A1EE60ULL, 0xFB152FE3FF26DA89ULL, 0x3E666E6F69AE2C15ULL,
273     0x3B544EBE544C19F9ULL, 0xE805A1E290CF2456ULL, 0x24B33C9D7ED25117ULL,
274     0xE74733427B72F0C1ULL, 0x0A804D18B7097475ULL, 0x57E3306D881EDB4FULL,
275     0x4AE7D6A36EB5DBCBULL, 0x2D8D5432157064C8ULL, 0xD1E649DE1E7F268BULL,
276     0x8A328A1CEDFE552CULL, 0x07A3AEC79624C7DAULL, 0x84547DDC3E203C94ULL,
277     0x990A98FD5071D263ULL, 0x1A4FF12616EEFC89ULL, 0xF6F7FD1431714200ULL,
278     0x30C05B1BA332F41CULL, 0x8D2636B81555A786ULL, 0x46C9FEB55D120902ULL,
279     0xCCEC0A73B49C9921ULL, 0x4E9D2827355FC492ULL, 0x19EBB029435DCB0FULL,
280     0x4659D2B743848A2CULL, 0x963EF2C96B33BE31ULL, 0x74F85198B05A2E7DULL,
281     0x5A0F544DD2B1FB18ULL, 0x03727073C2E134B1ULL, 0xC7F6AA2DE59AEA61ULL,
282     0x352787BAA0D7C22FULL, 0x9853EAB63B5E0B35ULL, 0xABBDCDD7ED5C0860ULL,
283     0xCF05DAF5AC8D77B0ULL, 0x49CAD48CEBF4A71EULL, 0x7A4C10EC2158C4A6ULL,
284     0xD9E92AA246BF719EULL, 0x13AE978D09FE5557ULL, 0x730499AF921549FFULL,
285     0x4E4B705B92903BA4ULL, 0xFF577222C14F0A3AULL, 0x55B6344CF97AAFAEULL,
286     0xB862225B055B6960ULL, 0xCAC09AFBDDD2CDB4ULL, 0xDAF8E9829FE96B5FULL,
287     0xB5FDFC5D3132C498ULL, 0x310CB380DB6F7503ULL, 0xE87FBB46217A360EULL,
288     0x2102AE466EBB1148ULL, 0xF8549E1A3AA5E00DULL, 0x07A69AFDCC42261AULL,
289     0xC4C118BFE78FEAAEULL, 0xF9F4892ED96BD438ULL, 0x1AF3DBE25D8F45DAULL,
290     0xF5B4B0B0D2DEEEB4ULL, 0x962ACEEFA82E1C84ULL, 0x046E3ECAAF453CE9ULL,
291     0xF05D129681949A4CULL, 0x964781CE734B3C84ULL, 0x9C2ED44081CE5FBDULL,
292     0x522E23F3925E319EULL, 0x177E00F9FC32F791ULL, 0x2BC60A63A6F3B3F2ULL,
293     0x222BBFAE61725606ULL, 0x486289DDCC3D6780ULL, 0x7DC7785B8EFDFC80ULL,
294     0x8AF38731C02BA980ULL, 0x1FAB64EA29A2DDF7ULL, 0xE4D9429322CD065AULL,
295     0x9DA058C67844F20CULL, 0x24C0E332B70019B0ULL, 0x233003B5A6CFE6ADULL,
296     0xD586BD01C5C217F6ULL, 0x5E5637885F29BC2BULL, 0x7EBA726D8C94094BULL,
297     0x0A56A5F0BFE39272ULL, 0xD79476A84EE20D06ULL, 0x9E4C1269BAA4BF37ULL,
298     0x17EFEE45B0DEE640ULL, 0x1D95B0A5FCF90BC6ULL, 0x93CBE0B699C2585DULL,
299     0x65FA4F227A2B6D79ULL, 0xD5F9E858292504D5ULL, 0xC2B5A03F71471A6FULL,
300     0x59300222B4561E00ULL, 0xCE2F8642CA0712DCULL, 0x7CA9723FBB2E8988ULL,
301     0x2785338347F2BA08ULL, 0xC61BB3A141E50E8CULL, 0x150F361DAB9DEC26ULL,
302     0x9F6A419D382595F4ULL, 0x64A53DC924FE7AC9ULL, 0x142DE49FFF7A7C3DULL,
303     0x0C335248857FA9E7ULL, 0x0A9C32D5EAE45305ULL, 0xE6C42178C4BBB92EULL,
304     0x71F1CE2490D20B07ULL, 0xF1BCC3D275AFE51AULL, 0xE728E8C83C334074ULL,
305     0x96FBF83A12884624ULL, 0x81A1549FD6573DA5ULL, 0x5FA7867CAF35E149ULL,
306     0x56986E2EF3ED091BULL, 0x917F1DD5F8886C61ULL, 0xD20D8C88C8FFE65FULL,
307     0x31D71DCE64B2C310ULL, 0xF165B587DF898190ULL, 0xA57E6339DD2CF3A0ULL,
308     0x1EF6E6DBB1961EC9ULL, 0x70CC73D90BC26E24ULL, 0xE21A6B35DF0C3AD7ULL,
309     0x003A93D8B2806962ULL, 0x1C99DED33CB890A1ULL, 0xCF3145DE0ADD4289ULL,
310     0xD0E4427A5514FB72ULL, 0x77C621CC9FB3A483ULL, 0x67A34DAC4356550BULL,
311     0xF8D626AAAF278509ULL
312   };
313
314   // Indices to the Random64[] array
315   const int PieceIdx     = 0;
316   const int CastleIdx    = 768;
317   const int EnPassantIdx = 772;
318   const int TurnIdx      = 780;
319
320   // Local functions
321   uint64_t book_key(const Position& pos);
322   uint64_t book_piece_key(Piece p, Square s);
323   uint64_t book_castle_key(const Position& pos);
324   uint64_t book_ep_key(const Position& pos);
325   uint64_t book_color_key(const Position& pos);
326 }
327
328
329 ////
330 //// Functions
331 ////
332
333 // C'tor. Make random number generation less deterministic, for book moves
334 Book::Book() {
335
336   for (int i = abs(get_system_time() % 10000); i > 0; i--)
337       RKiss.rand<unsigned>();
338 }
339
340
341 /// Destructor. Be sure file is closed before we leave.
342
343 Book::~Book() {
344
345   close();
346 }
347
348
349 /// Book::close() closes the file only if it is open, otherwise
350 /// we can end up in a little mess due to how std::ifstream works.
351
352 void Book::close() {
353
354   if (is_open())
355       ifstream::close();
356 }
357
358
359 /// Book::open() opens a book file with a given file name
360
361 void Book::open(const string& fName) {
362
363   // Close old file before opening the new
364   close();
365
366   fileName = fName;
367   ifstream::open(fileName.c_str(), ifstream::in | ifstream::binary);
368
369   // Silently return when asked to open a non-exsistent file
370   if (!is_open())
371       return;
372
373   // Get the book size in number of entries
374   seekg(0, ios::end);
375   bookSize = long(tellg()) / EntrySize;
376   seekg(0, ios::beg);
377
378   if (!good())
379   {
380       cerr << "Failed to open book file " << fileName << endl;
381       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
382   }
383 }
384
385
386 /// Book::file_name() returns the file name of the currently active book,
387 /// or the empty string if no book is open.
388
389 const string Book::file_name() { // Not const to compile on HP-UX 11.X
390
391   return is_open() ? fileName : "";
392 }
393
394
395 /// Book::get_move() gets a book move for a given position. Returns
396 /// MOVE_NONE if no book move is found.
397
398 Move Book::get_move(const Position& pos, bool findBestMove) {
399
400   if (!is_open() || bookSize == 0)
401       return MOVE_NONE;
402
403   BookEntry entry;
404   int bookMove = MOVE_NONE;
405   unsigned scoresSum = 0, bestScore = 0;
406   uint64_t key = book_key(pos);
407
408   // Choose a book move among the possible moves for the given position
409   for (int idx = find_key(key); idx < bookSize; idx++)
410   {
411       read_entry(entry, idx);
412       if (entry.key != key)
413           break;
414
415       unsigned score = entry.count;
416
417       // If findBestMove is true choose highest rated book move
418       if (findBestMove)
419       {
420           if (score > bestScore)
421           {
422               bestScore = score;
423               bookMove = entry.move;
424           }
425           continue;
426       }
427
428       // Choose book move according to its score. If a move has a very
429       // high score it has more probability to be choosen then a one with
430       // lower score. Note that first entry is always chosen.
431       scoresSum += score;
432       if (RKiss.rand<unsigned>() % scoresSum < score)
433           bookMove = entry.move;
434   }
435   if (!bookMove)
436       return MOVE_NONE;
437
438   // Verify the book move is legal
439   MoveStack mlist[MOVES_MAX];
440   MoveStack* last = generate<MV_LEGAL>(pos, mlist);
441   for (MoveStack* cur = mlist; cur != last; cur++)
442       if ((int(cur->move) & 07777) == bookMove)
443           return cur->move;
444
445   return MOVE_NONE;
446 }
447
448
449 /// Book::find_key() takes a book key as input, and does a binary search
450 /// through the book file for the given key. The index to the first book
451 /// entry with the same key as the input is returned. When the key is not
452 /// found in the book file, bookSize is returned.
453
454 int Book::find_key(uint64_t key) {
455
456   int left, right, mid;
457   BookEntry entry;
458
459   // Binary search (finds the leftmost entry)
460   left = 0;
461   right = bookSize - 1;
462
463   assert(left <= right);
464
465   while (left < right)
466   {
467       mid = (left + right) / 2;
468
469       assert(mid >= left && mid < right);
470
471       read_entry(entry, mid);
472
473       if (key <= entry.key)
474           right = mid;
475       else
476           left = mid + 1;
477   }
478
479   assert(left == right);
480
481   read_entry(entry, left);
482   return entry.key == key ? left : bookSize;
483 }
484
485
486 /// Book::read_entry() takes a BookEntry reference and an integer index as
487 /// input, and looks up the opening book entry at the given index in the book
488 /// file. The book entry is copied to the first input parameter.
489
490 void Book::read_entry(BookEntry& entry, int idx) {
491
492   assert(idx >= 0 && idx < bookSize);
493   assert(is_open());
494
495   seekg(idx * EntrySize, ios_base::beg);
496
497   *this >> entry;
498
499   if (!good())
500   {
501       cerr << "Failed to read book entry at index " << idx << endl;
502       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
503   }
504 }
505
506
507 /// Book::read_integer() reads size chars from the file stream
508 /// and converts them in an integer number.
509
510 uint64_t Book::read_integer(int size) {
511
512   char buf[8];
513   uint64_t n = 0;
514
515   read(buf, size);
516
517   // Numbers are stored on disk as a binary byte stream
518   for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
519       n = (n << 8) + (unsigned char)buf[i];
520
521   return n;
522 }
523
524
525 ////
526 //// Local definitions
527 ////
528
529 namespace {
530
531   uint64_t book_key(const Position& pos) {
532
533     uint64_t result = 0;
534     Bitboard b = pos.occupied_squares();
535
536     while (b)
537     {
538         Square s = pop_1st_bit(&b);
539         result ^= book_piece_key(pos.piece_on(s), s);
540     }
541
542     result ^= book_castle_key(pos);
543     result ^= book_ep_key(pos);
544     result ^= book_color_key(pos);
545     return result;
546   }
547
548
549   uint64_t book_piece_key(Piece p, Square s) {
550
551     // Convert pieces to the range 0..11
552     static const int PieceTo12[] = { 0, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 0, 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 };
553
554     return Random64[PieceIdx + (PieceTo12[int(p)]^1) * 64 + int(s)];
555   }
556
557
558   uint64_t book_castle_key(const Position& pos) {
559
560     uint64_t result = 0;
561
562     if (pos.can_castle_kingside(WHITE))
563         result ^= Random64[CastleIdx + 0];
564
565     if (pos.can_castle_queenside(WHITE))
566         result ^= Random64[CastleIdx + 1];
567
568     if (pos.can_castle_kingside(BLACK))
569         result ^= Random64[CastleIdx + 2];
570
571     if (pos.can_castle_queenside(BLACK))
572         result ^= Random64[CastleIdx + 3];
573
574     return result;
575   }
576
577
578   uint64_t book_ep_key(const Position& pos) {
579
580     return pos.ep_square() == SQ_NONE ? 0 : Random64[EnPassantIdx + square_file(pos.ep_square())];
581   }
582
583
584   uint64_t book_color_key(const Position& pos) {
585
586     return pos.side_to_move() == WHITE ? Random64[TurnIdx] : 0;
587   }
588 }